LSU AgCenter adjunct professor Christopher Mudge discusses identification
and control methods for water lettuce.

[1] Center, T.D., Dray Jr., F.A., Jubinsky, G.P., and Grodowitz, M.J. 2002. Insects and Other Arthropods That Feed on Aquatic and Wetland Plants. United States Department of Agriculture. 1870: 110-123.

[2] Cilliers, C.J. 1991. Biological control of water lettuce, Pistia stratiotes (Araceae), in South Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 37: 225-229.

[3] Cilliers, C., and Mabulu, L. 2002. The Water Lettuce Weevil (Neohydronomus affinis), A natural enemy of Water Lettuce/Waterslaai (Pistia stratiotes) in South Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute. 24.

[4] Dray Jr., F.A. and Center, T.D. 1989. Seed production by Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce) in the United States. Aquatic Botany. 33: 155-160.

[5] Department of Employment, Economic Development, and Innovation. 2012. Water lettuce Pistia stratiotes. The State of Queensland. 1430: 1-4.

[6] Foxcroft, L., Cilliers, C., MacFadyen, S., Freitag-Ronaldson, S., and Mngomezulu, V. 2006. War on water lettuce: Invasion and biological warfare in the Kruger National Park. Veld and Flora. Pp. 160-161.

[7] Harley, K.L.S., Kassulke, R.C., Sands, D.P.A., and Day, M.D. 1990. Biological Control of water lettuce, Pistia stratiotes [Araceae] by Neohydronomus affinis [Coleoptera: Curculionidae]. Entomophaga. 35:363-374.

[8] Thayer, D.D., Pfingsten, I.A., Howard, V., and Li, J. 2016. Pistia stratiotes L.: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database.

[9] Muniappan, R., Reddy, G., and Raman, A., 2009. Biological Control of Tropical Weeds Using Arthropods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 332-352.

Author: Seth Spinner

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