After row formation, water flows down the furrows between the rows using gravity and infiltrates vertically and horizontally to refill the soil water reservoir. Flow to each furrow is individually controlled. Considerations include having a uniform slope, available water capacity from the source, and lower irrigation efficiency than pressurized methods.
Mimicking natural rainfall, water is distributed across the field using sprinklers attached to a pressurized pipe system that moves through the field. Considerations include available water capacity from the source and minimizing evaporation losses through selection of nozzle packages and sprinkler height.
System consists of a network of pipes and flexible tubing typically buried under the soil surface that applies frequent applications of small quantities of water directly to the root system using clog-resistant emitters. Considerations include water quality of the source and regular maintenance needs.
Smart Technologies for Agricultural Management and Production [STAMP] Program.
Established in 2014, the STAMP Program offers research-based extension education through programs and products related to agricultural irrigation and associated technologies.
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It is critical to strive for high levels of irrigation efficiency to continue to have sustainable and profitable water resource applications.
The economics and adoption of surge values in irrigation of row crops indicate that investment in such efficiency improvements will improve farm profits.
This document can be used to learn how to schedule irrigation for crops using multiple tools.
Irrigation water management concepts and terms defined so anyone can communicate about irrigation.
A pumping plant evaluation is a testing method that allows for individual pumping plant components to be evaluated for efficiency to help in determining component sizing, replacement, compatibility and the associated economics. (PDF format only)
A Brief Explanation of Electrical Motor Soft Starters by Blair Stringam, Department of Extension Plant Sciences, New Mexico State University.
This publication gives several tips on how to pump less water and to make sure your pumping plant is being used as efficiently as possible. (PDF Format Only)
A brief explanation of variable frequency drives and how to apply them for irrigation pumping plants by Christopher G. Henry, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of Arkansas and Blair Stringam, Extension Plant Sciences, New Mexico State University. (PDF format only)
These irrigation management tips are designed to promote applying the water needed by the crop uniformly and efficiently while minimizing surface runoff. Combine these tips with local crop agronomic practices for a systematic approach to water conservation. By Christopher Henry, Univ. of Arkansas; Joseph Massey, Horace Pringle and L. Jason Krutz, Mississippi State Univ.; and Blair Stringam, New Mexico State Univ. (PDF format only)
Measuring irrigation flow contributes to better management and scheduling of irrigation events, thus improving profitability. By Ron E. Sheffield, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, LSU AgCenter; Christopher G. Henry, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of Arkansas; David Bankston, Food Sciences, LSU AgCenter, and William A. Hadden, Extension Specialist (retired), LSU AgCenter. (PDF format only)
Agricultural irrigation systems move large quantities of water over short periods of time, consuming and creating a significant amount of energy in the process. So these systems require caution during operation and service. By Christopher G. Henry, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of Arkansas; Ron E. Sheffield, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, LSU AgCenter, and Nicholas Kenny, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A&M University
Electric utility companies bill clients in kilowatt-hours, abbreviated kwh. The typical American electric meter is a device that looks like a clock. The clocklike device is driven by the electricity that moves through it. By Christopher G. Henry, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of Arkansas and Blair Stringam, Extension Plant Sciences, New Mexico State University. (PDF format only)
In recent years, personal and private demand for diesel fuel has increased, and diesel fuel prices have steadily risen to that of a premium fuel. This evolution has had a dramatic effect on irrigation pumping costs, to the point where many farms cannot economically continue to pump irrigation water using diesel fuel. (PDF format only)
This publication includes a definition of pump horsepower, an explanation of pump efficiency and information about how to calculate those values. (PDF format only)
A variable frequency drive, known as a VFD, is an electronic drive system used to control electric motors. Its purpose is varying motor speed by controlling input frequency and voltage. (PDF Format Only)
The best pump performance occurs when the pump is correctly matched to the application. This requires knowledge of the application and the pump. (PDF format only)
A brief explanation of the origin of the horsepower unit and how it relates to the power ratings of modern irrigation pumps – along with information about water horsepower, pump horsepower and pump efficiency by Blair Stringam, Department of Extension Plant Sciences, New Mexico State University. (PDF format only)
Infrastructure costs associated with delivering necessary electrical power from the grid often make this conversion to properly sized, efficient pumping plants an economic compromise. An alternative method for electrical power delivery in these scenarios is the installation of an on-site natural gas generator that can power multiple smaller electrical pumping plants. (PDF format only)
Accurately measuring natural gas consumption at an irrigation pumping plant is a vital aspect of evaluating engine and pumping plant performance. Unfortunately, determining natural gas consumption usually is not as simple as reading a natural gas meter. This document will provide basic information about, as well as methods of, measuring natural gas from a common natural gas meter. (PDF format only)
A pumping system’s efficiency is calculated by comparing the amount of fuel used to the amount of water pumped.
This fact sheet is designed to provide a brief introduction to the site selection, design, installation and management of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in humid and sub-humid areas. This overview is not intended to give all the information necessary for a complete and functional system. The reader is referred to more comprehensive documents for greater details in each category.