Stephen Harrison, Waltman, William F., Stapp, John, May, Dana, Stephenson, Daniel O., Arceneaux, Kelly J., Fluitt, Jacob, Mascagni, Jr., Henry J., Buckley, Blair, Leonards, James P., Price, III, Paul P, Purvis, Myra, Padgett, Guy B., Ezell, Dustin, Collins, Fred L., deNux, Caitlin, Groth, Donald E., Fontenot, Kathryn, Harrell, Dustin L., Kongchum, Manoch
Small grain variety trials are conducted annually by scientists of the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center Agricultural Experiment Station (LSUAC) to evaluate grain yield, agronomic performance, and disease reaction of varieties and advanced lines. The trials are conducted at seven LSUAC research stations representative of the major soil and climate regions of the state. Entries are included in the trials based upon previous performance or at the request of the originating agency. Inclusion of an entry in the trials does not constitute an endorsement. Beginning in 2017, the performance trial in north Louisiana is divided by relative maturity into two groups, early and medium-late (normal). This was done to facilitate planting and harvest. The north Louisiana early trial included 9 varieties (bold font) and 6 experimental lines (normal font) while the normal trial included 53 entries. The 2019 southern performance trials included 40 entries.
New entries in the statewide trials are tested in the north Louisiana normal trial and in a south Louisiana vernalization trial, unless prior testing in Baton Rouge nurseries indicates an entry is adapted to south Louisiana, in which case it is also tested in the south Louisiana variety trials. South Louisiana consists of the Baton Rouge, Crowley, and Jeanerette locations; whereas North Louisiana consists of locations at Alexandria, Bossier City, St. Joseph, and Winnsboro.
When choosing varieties, growers should consult their local extension agents and choose varieties based on two-year data within a region, not based on a single year or location. Growers should also consider specific data from the LSUAC variety trial location that most closely matches the weather and soil conditions of their farm and should avoid growing a single variety on a large acreage. Growing several varieties helps hedge against losing the entire crop to chance occurrences in weather or shifts in pathogen or pest races or virulence patterns. Yield, test weight, maturity, and disease resistance are important traits to consider when selecting varieties. If a grower plans to plant wheat early, he should avoid varieties that have a very early heading date in order to reduce the danger of freeze damage.
Specific management and cultural practices for a location are presented at the bottom of the tables, along with unusual or key observations about that test. All plots were seeded at the recommended rate with seed provided by the originating agency or company (Appendix A).
Data are collected on grain yield, test weight, heading and maturity dates, plant height, lodging, and disease reaction, as appropriate at each location. Grain yield was adjusted to 13% moisture. Least significant differences (LSD's) are reported at the 10% probability level. An LSD of 10% probability (α=0.10) is the level of difference in a trait (like yield) that occurs between two varieties once in every 10 comparisons as a result of random chance due to greater soil fertility, better drainage, slightly greater harvest length, or any other "uncontrollable or unmeasurable factors" in the test, even if the varieties had the same genetic yield potential. If the LSD (0.10) for yield in a trial is 7.0 bu/a, there is a 10% chance that two varieties with a reported yield difference of 7.0 bu/acre are genetically equal and a 90% probability they have differences in genetic potential in that particular environment. LSD values are influenced by the degree of precision that soil fertility, stand establishment, plot length, harvest efficiency, and other variables of the trials are controlled, and by the number of replications of each variety or treatment. The letters 'NS' are used in the text and tables to indicate lack of significance (not significantly different) at the 10% probability level. Correlations are sometimes given to indicate the degree to which two traits, such as rust rating and yield, are related. A correlation between rust rating and yield of r = -1.0 would indicate that for every unit increase in rust there was a proportional decrease in yield.
Wheat leaf rust (Puccinia triticina), stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis), and oat crown rust (Puccinia coronata) are reported as percentage of the upper two leaves affected by the disease. Two replications are evaluated for leaf rust, between flowering and the early dough stage of kernel development. Wheat and oat stem rust (Puccinia graminis) are reported on a scale of 0-9, where a 0 indicates no disease and a 9 indicates that the plant was killed by the disease. Stem rust is normally rated somewhat later than leaf rust.
Bacterial streak (Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens), Septoria leaf (Mycosphaerella graminicola) and glume blotch (Leptosphaeria nodorum) are rated on a scale of 0 to 9 during the dough stage of development. A rating of 0 indicates that no disease was present, while a 9 indicates very severe disease. The upper few leaves, heads, and stems below the head are the portions rated for these diseases. Since bacterial streak (black chaff) is not controlled by fungicides, it is important that this disease be distinguished from septoria blotch. Heading day is given as calendar day (day of year). Lodging is rated on a 0-9 scale, where a 0 indicates that all plants were completely upright.
Traits and Rating Scales for LAES Wheat and Oat Performance Trials.
|Yield||Yield||Grain yield in bushels per acre adjusted to 13% moisture.|
|Test weight||Test wt||Volume weight of grain in pounds per bushel|
|Heading day||Head day||Day of calendar year (days after December 31) until 50% heading.|
|Plant height||Ht||Plant height in inches.|
|Lodging rating||Lod||Lodging rated on a scale of 0 - 9, where a 0 indicates no lodging and a 9 indicates complete lodging (all plants flat).|
|Leaf rust||Leaf rust||Percent of upper two leaves affected by leaf rust, rated during grain fill. This rating is generally taken during soft to mid-dough, but varies somewhat by location and variety.|
|Stripe rust||Stripe rust||Percent of upper two leaves affected by stripe rust, rated between flag leaf and mid grain fill.|
|Septoria||Sept||Septoria leaf & glume blotch rated on a scale of 0 - 9, where 0 indicates no disease and 9 indicates severe disease on the flag leaf and head.|
|Bacterial Streak||Bact||Bacterial streak (black chaff) rated on a scale of 0 - 9, where 0 indicates no disease and 9 indicates severe disease on the flag leaf and head.|
|Powdery mildew||Powd mild||Powdery mildew rating on a scale of 0 - 9, where 0 indicates no disease and 9 indicates severe disease present on the foliage. Rated in early to mid spring.|
|Phenotype||Phe||Phenotypic rating, an overall visual rating prior to harvest. 0=poor, 9=excellent. This rating is a visual rating of ‘eye-appeal’.|
The 2018-2019 growing season got off to a difficult start with adverse weather conditions. Heavy, prolonged rains prevented planting at the Bossier City and St. Joseph locations. The Baton Rouge location was planted, but heavy rains soon after planting resulted in poor stands and abandonment of the wheat variety trial at this location. Oat variety trials were lost at all locations due to excessive rains which resulted in poor stands after planting or lodging and collapse prior to harvest. Weather conditions during grain fill were mild. Disease pressure was moderate and test weights and yields were good.
The 2019 South Louisiana Trials, harvested at Crowley and Jeanerette, included 40 entries (Table 1). Three LA experimental lines, LA09225C-33-3 (70.1 bu/acre), LA01110D-150-241 (69.0 bu/acre), LA08080C-31-1 (68.8 bu/acre) and one AR experimental line, AR06146E-1-4 (68.3 bu/acre) all had yields far above the mean of 60.4 bu/acre and test weights above the mean of 56.5 lbs/bu. Only one variety, Go Wheat LA754, yielded above 67 bu/acre. The four top yielding entries all headed 2 or more days after the mean of 85 days. Three of the five earliest-heading entries had yields below the mean of 60.4 bu/acre. The two latest-heading entries had very low test weights and yields, a result of heading out too late and entering grain fill during the hot part of late spring. For south Louisiana it is generally advisable to choose varieties with heading dates around the test mean or slightly later, and avoid the extremes in heading dates. There was very little disease pressure at the two south Louisiana locations.
South Louisiana performance for two years includes data from Crowley and Jeanerette for 2018 and 2019, and Baton Rouge for 2018 (Table 2). Out of 16 entries, 6 varieties, AGS2055 (86.1 bu/ac), Delta Grow 3500 (85.6 bu/ac), USG 3640 (84.0 bu/acre), GO Wheat LA754, and 2 experimental lines, AR06146E-1-4 (83.6 bu/ac) and LA01110D-150-241 (83.1 bu/acre) had yields well above 83.0 bu/ac. The average yield was 78.8 bu/acre. AGS 2055 is a cross-check from the late trial. It had the highest yield but also had a test weight below the mean of 58.7 lbs/bu. AGS3000 was the only entry with significant leaf rust and FHB pressure was light. The average heading date was 86 days (of year = March 28)
LA01110D-150-625 (75.1 bu/acre) had the highest yield of 10 entries over three years in South Louisiana (Table 3). The variety Go Wheat LA754 (74.7 bu/acre) and a second experimental LA line, LA01110D-150-241 (74.4 bu/acre) also had yields well above the mean of 69.7 bu/acre. The two LA0110D lines are selections out of LA754. All had test weights above the mean of 57.1 lbs/bu, with the exception of LA01110D-150-241 and all headed after the mean of 82 days. Out of all ten entries, only AGS 3000 had a leaf rust rating greater than 0%. FHB scores were low with a mean of 1.5 (0-9 scale) and lodging was moderate with a score mean of 3.1 (0-9 scale).
Test was abandoned due to poor stands resulting from heavy rains immediately after planting.
Yields and test weights were excellent at Crowley (Table 4). This test was harvested before the latest entries were fully dried down due to predicted heavy rainfall over an extended period, which proved to be a wise decision. The late maturing varieties AGS 2055, USG 3118, and Progeny Ag Berkeley and experimental line DH12SRW056-058 all had low test weights due to high moisture at harvest. Four experimental lines, DH12SRW056-058 (84.4 bu/acre), LA08080C-31-1 (84.1 bu/acre), LA09225C-33-3 (84.0 bu/acre) and GA 071518-16E39 (81.4 bu/acre) had the highest yields compared to the mean of 74.6 bu/acre. With the exception of DH12SRW056-058, all had test weights above the mean of 57.5 lbs/bu. The three highest yielding entries all headed out after the mean of 76 days. There was no disease pressure at Crowley in 2019.
Over two years at Crowley, AGS 2055 (98.5 bu/acre), Delta Grow 3500 (94.7 bu/acre) and LA09225C-33-3 (94.3 bu/acre) had the highest yield of 16 entries, all with yields well above the mean of 85.3 bu/acre.
Three experimental lines, LA01110D-150-241 (58.0 bu/acre), AR06146E-1-4 (56.3 bu/acre) and LA09225C-33-3 (56.2 bu/acre) and two varieties, Go Wheat LA754 (56.0 bu/acre) and Dyna-Gro Plantation (55.1bu/acre) led in yield of the 40 entries in Jeanerette in 2019 (Table 5). Test weights ranged from 59.8 lbs/bu to 40.5 bu/acre with a mean of 55.5 bu/acre. LA01110D-150-241, the highest yielding entry, had a test weight below the mean. The mean heading day was 95 days with 9 entries having heading days of 100 or greater. The two late-heading entries had the lowest test weights.
Over two years, three experimental lines, LA01110D-150-241 (82.2 bu/acre), AR06146E-1-4 (79.2 bu/acre) and LA01110D-150-625 (78.8 bu/acre) led at Jeanerette with yields well above the mean of 72.3 bu/acre)
Of the 9 entries tested over two years, AGS 2024 (81.1 bu/acre) and two medium-late checks, AGS 2055 (83.0 bu/acre) and AGS 2038 (80.1bu/acre) had the highest yields across North Louisiana (Table 6). All had stripe rust scores of 0 (0-9 scale), leaf rust ratings of 0%, and FHB scores in plots below the mean of 3.7 (0-9 scale). In misted, inoculated Fusarium Head blight nurseries, AGS 2024, AGS 2055, and AGS2038 had FHB scores, FDK (Fusarium Damaged Kernels) ratings and DON (Deoxynivalenol) ppm levels greater than the respective means of 5.3 (0-9 scale), 44% and 9ppm.
Over three years, AGS 2024 (70.3 bu/acre) had the highest non-check yield of 8 entries (Table 7). The two checks, AGS 2055 (71.2 bu/acre) and AGS 2038 (70.3 bu/acre) also had yields above 70 bu/acre compared to the mean of 66.0 bu/acre. As occurred over two years, AGS 2024 had FHB scores, FDK ratings and DON levels all greater than the respective means.
FHB reaction type is the observed reaction to the disease based on FDK (Fusarium Damaged Kernels) and DON (Deoxynivalenol) levels. The reaction types are Resistant, Moderately Resistant, Moderately Susceptible, and Susceptible. Reaction type of Early wheat variety trial entries can be found in Table 14.
Test not harvested due to extended heavy rains.
Test not planted due to extended heavy rains.
The late check AGS 2055 (75.3 bu/acre) followed by two experimental lines, TX15D9597 (71.2 bu/acre), and FLLA10033C-6 (70.7 bu/acre) had the highest yields of 15 entries in the Early maturity wheat performance trial at Winnsboro for 2019 (Table 8). All three had phenotype scores above the mean of 5.7 (0-9 scale). Yields in the test ranged from 75.3 bu/acre to 57.1 bu/acre with a mean of 64.8 bu/acre. Ten entries had leaf rust scores of 0 (0-9 scale). Heading day ranged from 93 to 107 with a mean of 97.
In addition to yield plots, the trial was also planted in an FHB misted and inoculated nursery where optimal conditions for disease development are maintained. In this nursery, AGS 2055, a medium-late check and highest yielding entry in the trial was very susceptible with a FHB score of 8 (0-9 scale), FDK rating of 93%, seed quality score of 1 (0-9 scale) and DON concentration of 22 ppm. Two breeding lines, GA09129-16E55 and TX15D9608 had the best ratings for FHB, along with AGS2040. There were a number of significant correlations between traits in this trial. Yield was positively correlated to phenotype and negatively correlated to FHB. Test weight was positively correlated to seed quality in plots and negatively correlated to FDK (Fusarium damaged kernels) in plots, which means that entries with good quality and a low percentage of damaged kernels also had higher yields as would be expected. Heading day was negatively correlated with FHB in the plots but positively correlated to FHB in the nursery. In the misted nursery all entries were under FHB pressure during flowering whereas in the regular yield plots the earliest lines could be disease escapes. Heading was also positively correlated with relative maturity and FDK in the nursery, but negatively correlated with seed quality.
Out of nine entries, four varieties, AGS 2024, AGS 2055, Delta Grow 3500, and AGS 2038 had the highest yields over two years at Winnsboro, all with yields above 82 bu/acre.
Yields were good and slightly higher in the North Louisiana ‘normal maturity’ trial in 2019. Three experimental lines, Progeny Ag PGX 18-2 (76.9 bu/acre), DG WX18416 (76.0 bu/acre), and Agrimaxx Exp1906 (75.6 bu/acre) and two varieties, Armor Velocity (75.3 bu/acre) and Progeny Ag PGS 18-8 (74.7 bu/acre) had the five highest yields of 53 entries compared to the mean of 67.2 bu/acre (Table 9). Test weights ranged from 52.4 lbs/bu to 57.7 lbs/bu with a mean of 55.6 lbs/bu. Stripe and leaf rust pressure was moderate, with rating means of 3% and 2% respectively. FHB scores and FDK ratings were far higher in the misted nursery than in the plots, as expected. All five of the top yielding entries headed later than the mean of day 90.
FDK (Fusarium Damaged Kernels) ranged from a low of 8% (LA12080LDH-72) to a high of 955 (AGS 2055). DON ranged from 2ppm (LA12080LDH-72) to 33ppm (Pioneer 26R41). SY Collins had the lowest FDK and DON of the released varieties and also had good yield and test weight.
Over two years, four varieties, AGS 2055 (85.9 bu/acre), USG 3640 (83.7 bu/acre), Pioneer 26R59 (81.8 bu/acre) and LCS L11713 (81.6 bu/acre) had the four highest yields in North Louisiana (Table 10). A Louisiana experimental line, LA08080C-31-1 (81.0 bu/acre ranked fifth compared to the mean of 77.4 bu/acre. With the exception of Pioneer 26R59 and LA08080C-31-1, all five entries had test weights above the mean of 57.9 lbs/bu. In the misted nursery, as expected, FHB scores and FDK ratings were much higher. Sy Collins and the breeding line, AR06146E-1-4 had the best FDK (10%) and DON (3ppm) in the misted disease nursery.
The variety AGS 2055 (76.8 bu/acre) also had the highest yield over three years followed by the experimental line LA01110D-150-241 (74.2 bu/acre) and Progeny Ag Fury (70.0 bu/acre) compared to the mean of 67 bu/acre (Table 11). AGS 2055 and Progeny Ag Fury both had test weights above the mean of 57.2 lbs/bu. Pioneer 26R59, progeny Bullet, and GO Wheat LA754 had the best FDK and DON ratings over three years.
Yields were fair at Alexandria despite plot variability due to bird damage, rainfall before harvest, and wet spots in the field (Table 12). The experimental line DG WX18416 (72.0 bu/acre) had the highest yield, followed by the variety Progeny Ag PGS 18-8 (69.6 bu/acre), the experimental lines Progeny Ag PGX 18-2 (68.5 bu/acre) and Agrimaxx Exp1906 (67.2 bu/acre) and the variety Progeny Ag Turbo (66.7 bu/acre), all well above the mean of 57.1 bu/acre (Table 12). Only two of the top five yielding entries, Progeny Ag PGS 18-8 (56.1 lbs/bu) and Progeny Ag PGX 18-2 (56.7 lbs/bu) had test weights above the mean of 55.6 lbs/bu.
Only Progeny Ag PGX 18-2 (Day 82) headed prior to the mean of day 83. Bird damage ranged from 0 to 7% with a mean of 3%. The five top-yielding entries all had bird damage ratings of 5% or less.
The variety Pioneer 26R59 (84.6 bu/acre), the experimental LA01110D-150-241(79.8 bu/acre) and a second variety, AGS 2055 (79.6 bu/acre) had the highest yields at Alexandria over two years compared to the mean of 71.5 bu/acre.
Test not planted due to extended heavy rains.
Test not planted due to extended heavy rains.
Grain yields at Winnsboro were excellent despite late planting due to rainfall. Two varieties, Armor Velocity (87.1 bu/acre) and AGS 2055 (85.3 bu/acre), and two experimental lines, Progeny Ag PGX 18-2 (85.3 bu/acre) and LA12080LDH-122 (85.1 bu/acre) had the highest yields compared to the mean of 77.5 bu/acre at Winnsboro in 2019 (Table 13). Leaf rust (mean 2%) and stripe rust (mean 3%) pressure was moderate with the top yielding entries all having ratings at or below the means. FHB pressure in the yield plots was high, with FDK ratings ranging from 5 to 70% and a mean of 24%. FDK ratings were very high in the misted inoculated nursery, ranging from 15% to 95% with a mean of 60%. Heading day ranged from 94 days to 112 days with a mean of 104 days. Of the four top yielding entries, only LA12080LDH-122 (day 94) headed before the mean.
Over two years, Pioneer 26R45 (98.1 bu/acre), Dyna-Gro 9811 (96.8 bu/acre), and Sy Viper (95.4 bu/acre) had the highest yields at Winnsboro. All three had stripe rust ratings of 0%, while Pioneer 26R45 and Sy Viper had Leaf rust ratings of 4% and 9%, respectively, both above the mean. Several entries showed good resistance to FHB in the misted and inoculated nursery. SY Collins had 15% FDK and only 4ppm DON. AR06146E-1-e, GO Wheat LA754, AGS 3040, and DynaGro Plantation all had good ratings for FHB. The breeding lines LA12080LDH-72 and LA12080LDH-122 h DON ratings of only 2ppm, very good FDK scores, and also good yields.
FHB reaction type is the observed reaction to the disease based on FDK (Fusarium Damaged Kernels) and DON (Deoxynivalenol) levels. Reaction type of Normal wheat variety trial entries can be found in Table 15.
The 2018-2019 oat variety trial was lost at all locations due to prevented planting or severe lodging due to very heavy rainfall.
See PDF for the tables.