|Peas & Beans
Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) is a member of Solanaceae family. This is frost-tender herbaceous perennial, usually grown as an annual plant. Diseases such as Verticillium wilt, Southern blight, Phomopsis blight, Anthracnose fruit rot and Altenaria blight are commonly associated with eggplant and can reduce its harvestable yield significantly.
A variety of diseases affect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in Louisiana. These include gummy stem blight, Fusarium wilt, anthracnose and downy mildew.
Tomato yellow leaf curl is a disease of tomatoes caused by the whitefly-transmitted virus, Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV). This disease was first observed in Louisiana in 2000 and since then has occurred sporadically in both field- and greenhouse-grown tomatoes. After a plant becomes infected, new growth is severely stunted and fruit production ceases. Disease management relies on use of disease-free transplants, planting resistant varieties and controlling whiteflies.
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) is a warm-season vegetable that can be grown throughout much of the United States. Together with winter squash, pumpkins are among the most-resistant of the cucurbits to certain diseases and insect damage. However, diseases such as Phytophthora fruit rot, Microdochium blight, Zucchini yellow mosaic, Fusarium rot and gummy stem blight are several common diseases that can severely affect pumpkin production.
Beans and peas are commonly affected by many diseases. If proper cultural practices, such as seed certification, use of resistant varieties, proper planting and crop rotation are followed, many of these problems can be avoided.
The pepper (Capsicum spp) originated in Mexico and surrounding areas of Central America. It is an excellent source of vitamin A, vitamin C and calcium. An important crop in commercial vegetable production, peppers have disease problems with which growers must be concerned.
Cucumber (Cucumis spp.), like other cucurbits (melons, squash, pumpkins, etc.), are attacked by several pathogens that can result in severe crop losses. Most damage is observed on cucumber leaves and stems. Fruits can also be severely affected, resulting in overall poor quality and yield, especially if disease has already weakened the plant.
Mustard (Brassica juncea ) is vulnerable to several diseases. The most serious ones include downy mildew, white rust, sclerotinia stalk rot (white mold), leaf spots and virus mosaic.
Cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts and kale are some of the members of the crucifer family often referred to as cole crops.
Like any other crop, squash is susceptible to a variety of diseases that attack below- and above-ground parts of the plant.
Herbs, whether annuals, biennials or perennials, are widely grown for their culinary, aromatic, medicinal and ornamental properties. The diversity of herbs grown is reflected by the diversity of diseases that occur on them.
Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are host to many pathogenic organisms that can affect any plant part during the growing and storage seasons. Historically, certain diseases of potato have had significant socio-economical impact, like the Irish potato famine of the 1840s caused, in part, by Phytophthora infestans (late blight).
Most of onion diseases are caused by fungi that can contribute to severe losses and reduce yield, quality and marketability of the product. Diseases such as downy mildew and numerous problems caused by Botrytis spp. can cause extensive damage to the onion production worldwide. Other diseases can be equally important but are confined to certain geographical areas. To use best management practices, understanding and properly identifying these diseases is crucial.
Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) and other cruciferous crops including cabbage, brussels sprouts and broccoli are susceptible to many diseases. Alternaria leaf spot and downy mildew are common in crucifer production and can reduce plant yield and market value. Alternaria leaf spot, in contrast to downy mildew, is favored by warm, moist weather.
The most common diseases of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) include black leg, black rot, downy mildew and soft rot.
There are nearly 75 known lettuce diseases with diverse causes that can be limiingt factors to lettuce production when resistant or tolerant cultivars are not available.
Fusarium wilt of tomato is caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This pathogen infects roots directly or enters through wounds and rapidly colonizes the xylem of the infected plant. This disease usually occurs during periods of hot weather from blossoming to fruit maturation. Because this pathogen can persist in infested soils for many years, avoiding areas with a history of Fusarium wilt and planting resistant varieties are your best management options.
Bacterial speck is favored by cool temperatures and high-moisture conditions. Severe fruit spotting can decrease yield potential by reducing its marketability.
Bacterial spot is present wherever tomatoes or peppers are grown. Crop losses result from both defoliation and spotting on the fruit, reducing yield potential and fruit marketability.
Bacterial wilt is a soilborne disease found in warm, temperate, subtropical and tropical areas. Ralstonia solanacearum (previously called Pseudomonas solanacearum) enters its host through roots and colonizes the xylem elements in the vascular tissue. Ralstonia has an extremely wide host range with well over 200 hosts reported.
Plant diseases can become the limiting factor ito tomato production worldwide. There are nearly 200 known tomato diseases of diverse causes and etiologies. Control of these diseases involves host resistance, exclusion, eradication and most importantly, use of best management practices.
Early blight is one of the most common tomato diseases and is distributed world-wide. Early blight is generally found in humid or semiarid climates where frequent dews provide significant moisture for disease development. This disease can result in severe crop losses due to defoliation and reduction in fruit size and quality.
Southern blight (or southern wilt) is a disease of hundreds of plant species, including tomatoes. It is favored by moist conditions and high temperatures. The fungus can survive for years in soil and plant debris.