2023 Small Grain Performance Trials

Stephen Harrison, Waltman, William F., Burns, Dennis, Stephenson, Daniel O., Arceneaux, Kelly J., Fluitt, Jacob, Anderson, Russell A., Collins, Fred L., Biradar, Hanamareddy, Leonards, James P., Price, III, Paul P, Purvis, Myra, Padgett, Guy B., Ezell, Dustin, Monaghan, Tashia M, DeWitt, Noah, Kongchum, Manoch

Introduction

Small grain variety trials are conducted annually by scientists of the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center Agricultural Experiment Station to evaluate grain yield, agronomic performance and disease reaction of varieties and advanced breeding lines. The trials are conducted at seven LSU AgCenter research stations representative of the major soil and climate regions of the state. Entries are included in the trials based upon previous performance or at the request of the originating breeder or company. Inclusion of an entry in the trials does not constitute an endorsement. The north Louisiana wheat trial included 36 released varieties (bold font in tables), 21 experimental lines (normal font in tables), and three seed treatment checks. There were 38 entries in the south Louisiana performance trials.

New entries in the statewide trials are tested in the north Louisiana trial and in a south Louisiana vernalization trial, unless prior testing in other Baton Rouge nurseries indicates an entry is adapted to south Louisiana, in which case it is also tested in the south Louisiana variety trial. South Louisiana consists of the Baton Rouge, Crowley and Jeanerette locations, whereas north Louisiana consists of locations at Alexandria, Bossier City, St. Joseph and Winnsboro.

When choosing varieties, growers should consult their local extension agents and choose varieties based on two-year data within a region, not based on a single year or location. Fusarium headblight reaction should also weigh heavily in variety choice as this disease is difficult to control and frequently contributes to loss of yield and economic value.

Growers should also consider specific data from the LSU AgCenter variety trial location that most closely matches the weather and soil conditions of their farm and should avoid growing a single variety on a large acreage. Growing several varieties helps to hedge against losing the entire crop to chance occurrences in weather or shifts in pathogen or pest races or virulence patterns. Yield, test weight, maturity, and disease resistance are important traits to consider when selecting varieties. If a grower plans to plant wheat early, he should avoid varieties that have a very early heading date in order to reduce the danger of freeze damage. Specific management and cultural practices for a location are presented at the bottom of the tables, along with unusual or key observations about that test. All plots were seeded at the recommended rate with seed provided by the originating agency or company (Appendix A).

Characteristics Evaluated and Statistics Reported

Data are collected on grain yield, test weight, heading and maturity dates, plant height, lodging, and disease reaction, as appropriate at each location. Grain yield was adjusted to 13% moisture. Least significant differences (LSD) are reported at the 10% probability level. An LSD of 10% probability (α=0.10) is the level of difference in a trait (like yield) that occurs between two varieties once in every 10 comparisons as a result of random chance due to greater soil fertility, better drainage, slightly greater harvest length, or any other “uncontrollable or unmeasurable factors” in the test, even if the varieties had the same genetic yield potential. If the LSD (0.10) for yield in a trial is 7.0 bu/acre, there is a 10% chance that two varieties with a reported yield difference of 7.0 bu/acre are genetically equal and a 90% probability that they have differences in genetic potential in that particular environment. LSD values are influenced by the degree of precision that soil fertility, stand establishment, plot length, harvest efficiency, and other variables of the trials are controlled, and by the number of replications of each variety or treatment. The letters “NS” are used in the text and tables to indicate lack of significance (not significantly different) at the 10% probability level. Correlations are sometimes given to indicate the degree to which two traits, such as rust rating and yield, are related. A correlation between rust rating and yield of r = -1.0 would indicate that for every unit increase in rust there was a proportional decrease in yield.

Wheat leaf rust, stripe rust and oat crown rust are reported as percentage of the upper two leaves affected by the disease. Two replications are evaluated for leaf and stripe rust, between flowering and the early dough stage of kernel development. Wheat and oat stem rust are reported on a scale of 0-9, where a 0 indicates no disease and a 9 indicates that the plant was killed by the disease. Stem rust is normally rated somewhat later than leaf rust.

Bacterial streak, Septoria leaf and glume blotch are rated on a scale of 0-9 during the dough stage of development. A rating of 0 indicates that no disease was present, while a 9 indicates very severe disease. The upper few leaves, heads, and stems below the head are the portions rated for these diseases. Since bacterial streak (black chaff) is not controlled by fungicides, it is important that this disease be distinguished from Septoria blotch. Heading day is given as calendar day (day of year). Lodging is rated on a 0-9 scale, where a 0 indicates that all plants were completely upright.

Fusarium headblight is rated on a 0-9 scale in yield plots and in inoculated, misted nurseries. A seed sample is rated for percent Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK) and then submitted to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Wheat DON Lab at the University of Minnesota to determine deoxynivalenol toxin (DON) concentration. The same procedure is followed for the misted nurseries except that samples are hand harvested and processed to avoid blowing out small, scabby seed. A Fusarium index is calculated as 2* [(FHB field rating / mean field rating) + (2* FDK% / mean FDK%) + (2*DON ppm / mean DON ppm)]. FHB reaction type is based on this FHB index.

Growing Conditions and General Comments for 2022-2023

The 2022-2023 growing season was mostly favorable for wheat production. All seven wheat trials and four oat trial locations were successfully planted. Rainfall was less than average in the spring and leaf and stripe rust disease pressure were low. The crop was planted and harvested on time. Crown rust and stem rust developed on susceptible varieties/entries of oats and reached high levels before season’s end. A late spring freeze caused significant damage to some entries in the wheat trial at Winnsboro and probably contributed to lodging at several locations. Oat trials were lost at Baton Rouge to heavy rainfall after planting and oat stands were less than ideal at Winnsboro as a result of heavy rains after planting.

Performance of Wheat Varieties Across South Louisiana South Region Means

All three south Louisiana locations produced good data in 2023. Disease pressure was low with the exception of stem rust at Baton Rouge. Fusarium headblight data was collected in the misted nursery at Baton Rouge. There was significant lodging, possibly due to freeze damage to lower stems. All entries vernalized despite relatively lower hours of vernalization than normal. There was a 31-day range in average heading date with the early and late extremes generally having low yields due to freeze damage in early lines or late grain filling under hot weather for the later lines.

The average yield was 61.4 bu/acre with a range of 47.8 bushels per acre to 75.2 bushels per acre (Table 1). The average test weight was 56.0 pounds per bushel. AGS 3022 had the highest yield across the region and the non-fungicide check (NF) of AGS 3022 had the second highest yield. The average yield of AGS 3022, AGS 3015 and GO Wheat 6000 with a fungicide seed treatment was 3.4 bushels per acre greater than the average of the same three varieties without a fungicide treatment.

Dyna-Gro 23777 had an average yield of 70.0 bushels per acre followed by GO Wheat LA754 at 69.3 bushels per acre. Seven of the eight entries with heading date later than 95 (April 5) had yields below the test average. Likewise, five of six entries with heading dates earlier than 80 (March 21) had yields below the test mean. Nine of the 10 highest yielding entries headed between March 21 and 31.

The average FDK (shriveled kernel percentage) in the misted nursery at Baton Rouge was 29.5% with a range of 5% to 70% but this may have been confounded with poorly filled kernels resulting from freeze damage rather than being caused by FHB.

Two years

AGS 3022 had a two-year mean yield of 80.8 bushels per acre followed by Dyna-Gro 23777 with a mean yield of 78.2 bushels per acre (Table 2). Disease pressure has been low in south Louisiana for the past two years.

The FHB data presented in Table 2 is from a misted, inoculated nursery in Baton Rouge. Misted nurseries are grown at three locations each year to screen varieties and breeding lines for resistance to Fusarium headblight disease. Tables 12 and 13 summarize the FHB reaction type of each variety and classify them for level of resistance.

Three years

Twelve entries have been tested across south Louisiana for three years (Table 3). AGS 3022 has the highest average yield followed by Delta Grow 3500 and Dyna-Gro Plantation. The average test weight was 55.9 pounds per bushel.

Baton Rouge

The average yield of 38 entries in Baton Rouge for 2023 was 61.6 bushels per acre (Table 4). Dyna-Gro 23777 had a yield of 84.0 bushels per acre and also had excellent test weight.

Crowley

Yields were excellent at Crowley with a mean of 82.0 and a high of 100.2 bushels per acre (Table 5). There was a 50 bushels per acre range in yields. AGS 3022 had the highest yield and also had a very good test weight. Significant lodging occurred at Crowley. Disease pressure in Crowley was very light during 2023.

Jeanerette

Yields in the Jeanerette trial were relatively low with a mean of 40.8 and a high of 57.2 bushels per acre (Table 6). Delta Grow DG1900 had the highest yield, followed by GO Wheat LA754 and Progeny Chad with yields also over 50 bushels per acre. Test weights at Jeanerette ranged from 50.6 to 61.8 pounds per bushel. Disease pressure was very light in Jeanerette.

Performance of Wheat Varieties Across North Louisiana

The trials at Alexandria and St. Joseph are not reported due to high CV (unexplained variation). The trials at Bossier City and Winnsboro produced very high yields with a north Louisiana average of 75.5 bushels per acre (Table 7). AGS 2055 had the highest average yield (97.7 bushels per acre) followed by Delta Grow DG 1700 and Agrimaxx 492. Agrimaxx 492 also had an exceptional test weight (59.3 pounds per bushel). The average test weight was 56.8 pounds per bushel.

Freeze damage was significant at Winnsboro and strongly influenced grain yield. The average freeze damage rating on a 0-9 scale (with 0 indicating no damage) was 2.2. Thirteen of the 14 lowest yielding lines had a freeze damage rating greater than 4.0, while the 19 highest yielding entries had little to no freeze damage.

Two years

Agrimaxx 492 has the highest two-year average yield (91.1 bushels per acre) across north Louisiana (Table 8). Dyna-Gro 23777 and AGS 2055 also have average yields over 87 bushels per acre. The average test weight was 55.9 pounds per bushel with a range of 53.6 to 58.1 pounds per bushel.

There were significant differences among entries for FHB reaction. FDK (shriveled kernels) ranged from 55% to 18% and DON mycotoxin concentration ranged from 22.6 ppm to 2.6 ppm.

Three years

The highest yield of 19 entries tested for three years is 87.5 bushels per acre for Agrimaxx 492. Progeny Chad and AGS 2055 also have average yield over 83 bushels per acre (Table 9). The average test weight was 55.5 pounds per bushel with a range of 53.7 to 57.6 pounds per bushel. The entry with the highest yield also had the highest phenotype rating (overall visual appearance) and the entry with the lowest yield had the lowest phenotype rating.

Alexandria

The data from Alexandria are not reported due to a high CV%.

Bossier City

AGS 2055 had the highest yield at Bossier City (95.3 bushels per acre, Table 10). Agrimaxx 492, USG 3354, Delta Grow DG1700 and Delta Grow DG 1900 also had yields over 90 bushels per acre. The average yield of 61 entries was 76.8 bushels per acre and the average test weight was 56.9 pounds per bushel.

Eight of the nine latest-heading entries were among the nine entries with the lowest test weight, which indicates the impact of late grain filling on test weight.

St. Joseph

The there was significant bird damage and bear damage to specific plots at St. Joseph. As a result CVs are quite high and data are not reported.

Winnsboro

The trial at Winnsboro produced excellent yields, with a high of 101.1 bushels per acre (Table 11). Agrimaxx 473, USG 3463, Delta Grow DG1700, TX18D3212 and Delta Grow 1000 all yielded over 100 bushels per acre.

Agrimaxx 492, Dyna-Gro Plantations, and Dyna-Gro Blanton had test weights over 60 pounds per bushel. The average test weight was 55.0 pounds per bushel.

Fusarium Headblight Screening Results

Tables 12 and 13 contain the FHB reaction type of all entries tested for two or more years. Entries are classified as Resistant, Moderately Resistant, Moderately Susceptible or Susceptible based on the Fusarium headblight index value over two or three years.

FHB index is calculated as: 2* (A + 2*B + 2*C) where:

A = FHB rating divided by the mean FHB rating.

B = FDK percent divided by the mean FDK percent.

C = DON ppm divided by the mean DON ppm.

The FHB Index gives more weight to DON and FDK since they are the standard by which grain is judged at the elevator.

Table 12 has values for FHB, FDK and DON from the misted nursery in Alexandria and Winnsboro for all entries in the North Louisiana variety trial. NIV (nivalenol) was measured by the USDA lab in 2023 from seed in the Alexandria and Baton Rouge misted nurseries. NIV is similar to DON but is found more commonly in south Louisiana, particularly in the rice growing region.

Agrimaxx 492 and Progeny Turbo were classified as Resistant, while eight additional varieties are moderately resistant to FHB and six entries were classified as Susceptible to FHB.

Three entries were classified as Resistant in the south Louisiana trial based on the misted nursery at Baton Rouge and five entries were classified as moderately resistant.

Oat Performance Trials

The oat performance trial was lost at Baton Rouge due to torrential rainfall immediately after planting. Data is not reported for Bossier City or Alexandria due to high CV% resulting from bird damage and severe lodging.

Despite stands that were less than ideal at Winnsboro, yields were excellent with a high of 120.7 bushels per acre and a mean of 98.4 bushels per acre (Table 14). The 11 highest-yielding entries at Winnsboro were breeding lines from the SunGrains universities Louisiana State University AgCenter, Texas A&M and the University of Florida. The highest yielding released varieties were Horizon 306 and TAMO412, both with yields greater than 100 bushels per acre.

Test weights were also excellent with a mean of 31.6 pounds per bushel. Two LSUAC sister lines (LA17089s) had test weights over 36 pounds per bushel along with excellent yields.

Thirteen entries have been tested across Louisiana for two years (Table 15). Yields ranged from 108.2 bushels per acre to 33.2 bushels per acre with a mean of 81.7 bushels per acre. Crown rust, stem rust and lodging lowered yields of most entries. The commercial varieties Savage, LA 99016, Horizon 306 and TAMO 412 all had fairly average yields in these trials.


For full data tables, please see PDF.


Authors

  • Stephen A. Harrison: Professor and variety trial coordinator, Research Associate, Research Associate, Assistant Professor, and Research Farm Assistant 2, respectively. SPESS Department, Baton Rouge.
  • Kelly Arceneaux: Professor and variety trial coordinator, Research Associate, Research Associate, Assistant Professor, and Research Farm Assistant 2, respectively. SPESS Department, Baton Rouge.
  • Russell Anderson: Research Associate, respectively. Red River Research Station, Bossier City.
  • Reddy Biradar: Professor and variety trial coordinator, Research Associate, Research Associate, Assistant Professor, and Research Farm Assistant 2, respectively. SPESS Department, Baton Rouge.
  • Dennis Burns: Extension Specialist, Northeast Research Station, St. Joseph.
  • Fred Collins: Research Associate, Professor, and Professor, respectively. Dean Lee Research Station, Alexandria.
  • Noah DeWitt: Professor and variety trial coordinator, Research Associate, Research Associate, Assistant Professor, and Research Farm Assistant 2, respectively. SPESS Department, Baton Rouge.
  • Dustin Ezell: Research Associate, Associate Professor and Research Associate, respectively. Macon Ridge Research Station, Winnsboro.
  • Jacob Fluitt: Research Associate, Professor, and Research Associate, respectively. Rice Research Station, Crowley.
  • Katie Fontenot: Professor and variety trial coordinator, Research Associate, Research Associate, Assistant Professor, and Research Farm Assistant 2, respectively. SPESS Department, Baton Rouge.
  • Manoch Kongchum: Research Associate, Professor, and Research Associate, respectively. Rice Research Station, Crowley.
  • James Leonards: Research Associate, Professor, and Research Associate, respectively. Rice Research Station, Crowley.
  • Tashia Monaghan: Research Associate, Professor, and Professor, respectively. Dean Lee Research Station, Alexandria.
  • G. Boyd Padgett: Research Associate, Professor, and Professor, respectively. Dean Lee Research Station, Alexandria.
  • Trey Price: Research Associate, Associate Professor and Research Associate, respectively. Macon Ridge Research Station, Winnsboro.
  • Myra Purvis: Research Associate, Associate Professor and Research Associate, respectively. Macon Ridge Research Station, Winnsboro.
  • Daniel Stephenson: Research Associate, Professor, and Professor, respectively. Dean Lee Research Station, Alexandria.
  • William Waltman: Research Associate, respectively. Red River Research Station, Bossier City.
  • Greg Williams: Research Associate. Iberia Research Station, Jeanerette.
8/30/2023 3:06:07 PM
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