Blueberries Glossary

Denise Attaway  |  12/14/2011 10:22:06 PM

In this article:
A
B
C
D
F
G
H
I
K
M
N
O
P
R
S
T
U
V
W

A

Anther. The part of the stamen that contains pollen.

Adventitious roots: Root growing from an unusual place, e.g., from a stem.

After-ripening: The seed maturation process that must be completed before germination can occur.

Agronomy: A branch of agriculture dealing with crop production and soil management.

Alternaria Leaf Spot of Blueberry: Alternaria Leaf Spot (Alternaria tenuissima) occurs primarily in the spring during prolonged periods of cool wet weather, when spores are produced in abundance.

Anther: The part of the stamen that contains pollen (See the diagram for additional information).

Anthesis: The time of flowering or flower opening.

Anthocyanins: Anthocyanins are members of the flavonoid group of phytochemicals, which is a group predominant in teas, honey, wines, fruits, vegetables, nuts, olive oil, cocoa and cereals. Because of their strong red to blue coloring, anthocyanins are the most recognized, visible members of the bioflavonoid phytochemicals.

Apex: 1. The highest point or topmost shoot of the plant. 2. Blossom end of the berry.

Aphicide: An insecticide that is active against aphids.

Ascorbic Acid: Also known as vitamin C, it is essential for the development and maintenance of connective tissue. Vitamin C speeds the production of new cells in wound healing and it is an antioxidant that keeps free radicals from hooking up with other molecules to form damaging compounds that might attack tissue.

Ascospores: Spores produced by the apothecia that are liberated during cool, wet weather and are carried by air currents to the young emerging leaf and flower shoots.

Azoxystrobin: Azoxystrobin is the first of a new class of pesticidal compounds called ß-methoxyacrylates, which are derived from the naturally-occurring strobilurins.

B

Botanical Dietary Supplement: A plant or plant part valued for its medicinal or therapeutic properties, flavor, and/or scent.

C

Calyx: In cotton: Outer protective covering of the flower bud (square); the leaf-like green segments also called sepals. In plants: The collective term for all the sepals.

Canker: A localized necrotic area of a branch or trunk, usually caused by a fungal pathogen.

Captan: Captan is a fungicide, meaning it is a chemical that is used to control fungus.

Chlamydospores: Thick-walled asexual resting spore of certain fungi and algae. It is the life-stage which survives in unfavourable conditions, such as dry or hot seasons. Chlamydospores are usually dark-coloured, spherical, and have a smooth (non-ornamented) surface. They are multicellular, the cells being connected by pores in septae between cells.

Chlorophyll: Green pigments found in all green plants. Chlorophyll makes it possible for plants to make their own food.

Chlorosis: A condition where leaves turn light green or yellow due to a lack of chlorophyll. This condition can be an indicator of disease, nutrient deficiency, or lack of sunlight.

Chlorothalonil: Chlorothalonil is a broad spectrum, non-systemic protectant pesticide mainly used as a fungicide to control fungal foliar diseases of vegetable, field, and ornamental crops.

Cleistothecia: A closed spore-bearing structure in some ascomycetous fungi from which the asci and spores are released only by decay or disintegration.

Cleistothecia is associated with Powdery Mildew of Blueberry.

Conidia: Secondary sportes produced when ascospores infect and blight the young shoots on a plant.

Corolla: All the petals of a flower.

D

Defoliation: 1. The loss of leaves from a plant, whether naturally (in autumn) or via herbicide, disease or insects. 2. The loss of leaves from the cotton plant; may be damaging and happen prematurely (i.e., soybean loopers consuming cotton plant leaves before cutout or leaf loss caused by a potassium deficiency) or naturally (the predictable loss of leaves of all deciduous plants).

F

Filament.

Fenbuconazole: Fenbuconazole is a triazole fungicide intended for use as an agricultural and horticultural fungicide spray for the control of leaf spot, yellow and brown rust, powdery mildew and net blotch on wheat and barley and apple scab, pear scab and apple powdery mildew on apples and pears.

Fenhexamid: Fenhexamid is a locally systemic, protectant fungicide. It prevents fungi from infecting plants by inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth. The fungicide is absorbed into the outer waxy layer of plant surfaces and is protected from being washed off by rainfall or irrigation.

Filament: The stalk of a stamen. 2. A very slender fiber or thread; fibril (please see the diagram above for additional information).

Fumigate: A fumigant is a vapor-active chemical used in the gaseous phase to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms or other pests.

G

Glucose: Glucose (GLU-kos) A building block for most carbohydrates. Digestion causes some carbohydrates to break down into glucose. After digestion, glucose is carried in the blood and goes to body cells where it is used for energy or stored.

Glufosinate Ammonium: A foliar herbicide for use in tree crops (fruit trees, vines, oil palm, rubber and tea), vegetables, non-crop areas (paddy dykes, pre-planting application) and as desiccant of potatoes and other crops.

Glyphosate: Glyphosate is a non-selective, systemic herbicide that can control most annual and perennial plants. It controls weeds by inhibiting the synthesis of aromatic amino acids necessary for protein formation in susceptible plants. Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum, nonselective systemic herbicide that kills or suppresses many grasses, forbs, vines, shrubs, and trees. Care should be taken, especially in natural areas, to prevent it from being applied to desirable, native plants.

H

Hardpan: A hardened soil layer in the lower A or in the B horizon caused by cementation of soil particles with organic matter or with materials such as silica, sesquioxides, or calcium carbonate. The hardness does not change appreciably with changes in moisture content, and pieces of the hard layer do not crumble in water. cf. caliche.

Horticulture: An agricultural technology distinguished by the use of hand tools to grow domesticated plants. Does not use draft animals, irrigation, or specially prepared fertilizers.

Hydathodes: A pore that exudes water on the surface or margin of a leaf of higher plants.

I

Internode.

Insulin: A hormone that controls the amount of glucose in the blood. Insulin is produced from the pancreas.

Insulin Resistance: Insulin resistance is a condition that makes it harder for the cells to properly use insulin.

Insulin Sensitivity: Insulin sensitivity helps to determine the total daily insulin dose. It is one measure of one's risk for heart disease. The more insulin sensitive one is, in general, the lower the risk for heart problems.

Internode: The portion of the main stem between nodes; in cotton it is often used as an indicator of growth, i.e., a greater internode length indicates faster growth and the possible need of a growth regulator capable of slowing growth (See diagram for additional information).

K

Kaempferol (An Antioxidant in Blueberries): Kaempferol is a large fat-soluble antioxidant molecule found in many fruits and vegetables. It is a strong antioxidant and a significant component of blueberry antioxidants. Kaempferol has a role in preventing degenerative changes that occur with aging and reducing the incidence of chronic diseases. It prevents oxidative damage of our cells, lipids, and DNA. It also prevents heart disease by decreasing the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and reducing the formation of platelets in the blood. Another way that it inhibits heart disease development is that it decreases a protein that begins the plaque formation in the arteries. Click here for more information.

M

Mycelium: The vegetative part of a fungus consisting of a mass of branching threadlike hyphae or filaments.

N

Soybean cyst nematode and egg. Photo taken using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Necrosis: The death or disintegration of cells or tissues while they are still part of a living organism; in plants usually resulting in a darkening of the affected tissue.

Nematode: Microscopic worm-like animals that live in soil or water, or as parasites in plants and animals.


O

ORAC: An Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) score is a test tube analysis that measures the antioxidant levels of food and other chemical substances. If a food has a high ORAC score, such as blueberries, then it means the food is high in antioxidants. The antioxidant’s strength is its ability to eliminate oxygen free radicals. With the ORAC score, a higher score means the food is better at helping us fight diseases such as heart disease and cancer.

P

Phytophthora root rot may occur in poorly drained fields such as the one seen here. Photo by David I

Parthenocarpy: The development of a fruit without fertilization or seeds. Stimulative: induced by pollination or chemical treatment; or vegetative: occurring without external influence.

Perennial Plant: A plant that has a life span of 3 or more years.

Phytochemicals: Phytochemicals, commonly referred to as phytonutrients, are naturally-occurring non-nutritive (not required in the diet like nutrients) constituents of fruits and vegetables. They are said to be bioactive and are considered to have a beneficial effect on human health. The health benefits of blueberries are believed to be due to the diverse range of phytochemicals contained within them.

Phytophtora Root Rot: 
Phytophthora root rot (Phytophthora cinnamomi) may occur at poorly drained sites or in low areas of fields (please see the photograph above for additional information).

Pruning: The removal of plant parts to obtain horticultural objectives, such as controlling the size and form of a plant, optimizing production potential, and maintaining a balance between vegetative growth and fruiting.

Pterostilbene: Pterostilbene (pronounced "tero-STILL-bean")is an antioxidant compound that is found in colorful fruit, especially blueberries. Like resveratrol, a compund which has been identified in grapes and red wines, pterostilbene belongs to a group of compounds called phytoalexins which are produced by plants in response to stresses such as fungal infections and ultraviolet light. Pterostilbene is known to help regulate blood sugar and some reasearchers believe it may help fight type-2 diabetes.

Pucciniastrum Vaccinii: Rabbiteye cultivars suffer from premature defoliation that appears to be caused by a rust fungus, tentatively identified as Pucciniastrum vaccinii (Synonym P. myrtillus). This disease also occurs sporadically on highbush blueberries after harvest.

Pycnidia: Circular lesions, gray and flat in appearance that form around fruit buds and produce fungal fruiting bodies.

R

Rhizomorphs: Rhizomorphs are fungus mycelium arranged in strands and have a rootlike appearance. This fungus is associated with Armillaria root rot in blueberry bushes.

S

Self-pollination: Fertilization by transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of the same flower, or to different flowers on the same plant.

Soluble fiber: A type of dietary fiber found in psyllium, cereals, oatmeal, apples, citrus fruits, beans and other foods which increases the viscosity in the gut and acts to reduce high blood cholesterol levels which decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Succulent: 1. Thick and fleshy, usually said of leaves. 2. A plant having fleshy tissues that conserve moisture.

T

Trochanters: 1. Any of several bony processes on the upper part of the femur of many vertebrates. 2. The second proximal segment of the leg of an insect.

U

Uredinia: Urendinia are lemon yellow pustules that split the bark of the fruiting canes of susceptible berries. Spores from these pustules (urediniospores) infect leaves and produce small yellow pustules (uredinia) on the underside of leaves during early summer. Defoliation can occur if infection is severe. Buff-colored telia develop among the uredinia on leaves in early fall.

Urediniospores: One of the thin-walled spores that are produced by uredinial hyphae and spread the fungus vegetatively.

Ursolic Acid: A Wonder Chemical in Blueberries: Ursolic acid has been used in folk and Chinese medicine for a long time. It is used for its anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antimicrobial properties. Ursolic acid can be found in various fruits and vegetables such as blueberries, beets, ginseng, marigold, mushrooms, gourd, and lychee. It has been used to treat inflammatory disorders, acute hepatitis, fevers, constipation, and illnesses relating to digestion and the blood, and has been used in binding for wounds, amongst other ailments.

V

Vaccinum Corymbosum: Vaccinum corymbosum is the North American Highbush Blueberry.

W

Windrows: Rows of vegetative debris.  

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