Heli J. Roy | 4/22/2005 1:02:43 AM
The 2005 edition of the Guidelines offers a number of updates on familiar dietary subjects. LSU AgCenter nutritionist Dr. Heli Roy examines some critical points.
Adequate nutrients within calorie needs. Adjust diet to calorie needs by concentrating on a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages while refraining from foods with saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt and alcohol.
"You can meet recommended intakes within energy needs by adopting a balanced eating pattern, such as the USDA Food Guide or the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan," Roy says.
Weight management.To maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance calories from foods and beverages with calories expended. Roy explains that means to prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase your physical activity.
Physical activity.Engage in regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activities to promote health, psychological well-being and a healthy body weight. To reduce the risk of chronic disease in adulthood Roy recommends at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity, above usual activity, at work or home on most days of the week.
The nutritionist says most people can enjoy greater health benefits with more vigorous physical activity or exercise of longer duration. In fact, she advises approximately 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity on most days of the week for adults who want to manage body weight and prevent gradual, unhealthy body weight gain. Of course, don’t exceed calorie level requirements.
To sustain weight loss in adulthood, the nutritionist says to participate in at least 60 to 90 minutes of daily moderate-intensity physical activity while not exceeding caloric intake requirements. Some people may need to consult with a healthcare provider before participating in this level of activity.
Achieve physical fitness by including cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility and resistance exercises or calisthenics for muscle strength and endurance.
Key food groups.Consume a sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables while staying within energy needs. Two cups of fruit and 2 1/2 cups of vegetables per day are recommended for a 2,000-calorie diet, with higher or lower amounts depending on the calorie level.
Roy says to choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each day. In particular, select from all five vegetable subgroups: dark green, orange, legumes (dry beans), starchy vegetables and other vegetables.
Consume a 3-ounce equivalent or more of whole-grain products per day, with the rest of the recommended grains coming from enriched or whole-grain products. In general, at least half the grains should come from whole grains. Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products.
Fats.Consume less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fatty acids and less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol, and keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible. Keep total fat intake between 20 percent to 35 percent of calories, with most fats coming from sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, such as fish, nuts and vegetable oils.
When selecting and preparing meat, poultry, dry beans and milk or milk products, make choices that are lean, low fat or fat free. Limit intake of fats and oils high in saturated and/or trans fatty acids, and choose products low in such fats and oils.
Carbohydrates.Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables and whole grains often. Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweeteners, such as amounts suggested by the USDA Food Guide and the DASH Eating Plan.
Reduce the incidence of dental caries (diseases) by practicing good oral hygiene and consuming sugar- and starch-containing foods and beverages less frequently.
Sodium and potassium.Consume less than 2,300 mg (approximately 1 teaspoon of salt) of sodium per day. Choose and prepare foods with little salt. At the same time, consume potassium-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables.
Alcoholic beverages.Those who choose to drink alcoholic beverages should do so sensibly and in moderation, defined as the consumption of up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men.
Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by some individuals, including those who cannot restrict their alcohol intake, women of childbearing age who may become pregnant, pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, individuals taking medications that can interact with alcohol and those with specific medical conditions.
Alcoholic beverages should be avoided by individuals engaging in activities that require attention, skill or coordination, such as driving or operating machinery.
Food safety.To avoid microbial foodborne illness, clean hands, food contact surfaces and fruits and vegetables. Meat and poultry should not be washed or rinsed. Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing or storing foods. Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms. Chill (refrigerate) perishable food promptly and defrost foods properly. Avoid raw (unpasteurized) milk or any products made from unpasteurized milk, raw or partially cooked eggs or foods containing raw eggs, raw or undercooked meat and poultry, unpasteurized juices and raw sprouts.
Roy adds that the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 offers additional recommendations for specific populations and may be found at www.healthierus.gov/dietaryguidelines
For information on related family and consumer topics, visit the FCS Web site at http://www.lsuagcenter.com/Inst/
Extension/Departments/fcs/. For local information and educational programs, contact an extension agent in your parish LSU AgCenter office.
On the Internet: LSU AgCenter: www.lsuagcenter.com/Inst/
On the Internet: Dietary Guidelines: www.healthierus.gov/dietaryguidelines
Source: Heli Roy (225) 578-3329, or HRoy@agcenter.lsu.edu