At least half of all the grains eaten should be whole grains.
1. whole grains – Whole grains contain the entire grain kernel – the bran, germ and endosperm.
Examples: whole wheat flour, oatmeal, bulgur, brown rice
2. refined grains – Refined grains have been milled, a process that removes the bran and germ.
Examples: white bread, white rice, white flour
Most refined grains are enriched, meaning the B vitamins and iron are added back after the process. Fiber is not added back.
Grains needed daily: Depends on age, gender and level of physical activity
Daily Minimum Amount of Whole Grains
2-3 years old4-8 years old
3 ounce equivalents5 ounce equivalents
1 ½ ounce equivalents2½ ounce equivalents
9-13 years old14-18 years old
5 ounce equivalents6 ounce equivalents
3 ounce equivalents3 ounce equivalents
6 ounce equivalents8 ounce equivalents
3 ounce equivalents4 ounce equivalents
19-30 years old31-50 years old51+ years old
6 ounce equivalents6 ounce equivalents5 ounce equivalents
3 ounce equivalents3 ounce equivalents3 ounce equivalents
1 slice of bread – 1 oz equivalent1 cup ready to eat cereal – 1 oz equivalent½ cup cooked rice, pasta or cooked cereal – 1 oz equivalent½ Hamburger or hot dog bun – 1 oz equivalentWaffle of pancake (4 inch diameter – 1 oz equivalent
To see a chart of grain ounce equivalents, click here:
Look for foods that have one of the following as the first ingredient of the ingredient list:
Websites to Visit:
www.usarice.com This is a good site for rice recipes, cooking tips and nutrition information. www.smallgrains.org Click on "Wheat Foods" and then the "6 Classes of Wheat." Also click on "Wheat Facts" and "About Wheat Nutrition" and read the topics included. www.kelloggs.com Click on "Course 1" and go through the course. www.breadworld.com This is a good site for recipes and nutrition information.www.quakeroats.com This is a good site for recipes and nutrition activities for children.
Vegetables are organized into 5 subgroups, based on their nutrient content. Here are a few examples of vegetables in each group:
DAILY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR VEGETABLES:
1 cup1½ cups
2 cups2½ cups
2½ cups3 cups
19-30 years old31-50 years old51+ years old
2½ cups 2½ cups2 cups
3 cups3 cups2½ cups
Food Safety Tip:
Always remember to wash your fruits and vegetables to remove dirt and pesticides, and to store fruits and vegetables away from any raw meat or poultry while shopping or storing. It is best to put raw meat on the lowest shelf in the refrigerator or shopping basket.
Cup Equivalents for Vegetable Group:
1 cup raw or cooked vegetables = 1 cup of vegetables1 cup vegetable juice = 1 cup of vegetables2 cups raw leafy greens =1 cup of vegetablesTo see chart of cup equivalents for vegetable group click here
Key Nutrients in Vegetables:Potassium – May help to maintain healthy blood pressure. Potassium is involved in fluid balance in the body.Dietary fiber – It is important for proper bowel function. May help reduce blood cholesterol levels and risk for coronary heart disease and type-2 diabetes.Folate (folic acid) – Helps the body make red blood cells, which help prevent anemia. The lack of folic acid may cause miscarriages or neural tube birth defects. (dark green leafy vegetables)Vitamin A – Keeps eyes and skin healthy and helps to protect against infections. (carrots, greens, pumpkin, sweet potatoes)Vitamin C – Helps heal cuts and wounds and keeps teeth and gums healthy. Vitamin C aids in iron absorption. (green peppers, broccoli, potatoes, cabbage)
Tips to Increase Vegetable Intake:
1 cup1 to 1½ cups
1½ cups1½ cups
1½ cups2 cups
19-30 years old 31-50 years old51+ years old
2 cups1½ cups1½ cups
2 cups2 cups2 cups
Cup Equivalents in Fruit Group
1 cup 100% fruit juice – 1cup equivalent1 cup of fruit – 1 cup equivalent½ cup dried fruit – 1 cup equivalent
Fruits and vegetables are an important source of fiber. There are two types of fiber.
Sources of insoluble fiber: zucchini, celery, broccoli, cabbage, onions, tomatoes, carrots, cucumbers, green beans, dark leafy vegetables, raisins, grapes, fruit and root vegetable skins.
Sources of soluble fiber: apples, oranges, pears, strawberries, beans, dried peas, blueberries, cucumbers, celery, and carrots.
Fitting in Fuits:
Key Nutrients in Fruit:Potassium: May help to maintain healthy blood pressure. (bananas, prunes and prune juice, dried peaches and apricots, cantaloupe, honeydew melon and orange juice)
Dietary Fiber: from fruits, as part of an overall healthy diet, helps reduce blood cholesterol levels and may lower risk of heart disease. Fiber is important for proper bowel function. It helps reduce constipation.
Vitamin C: important for growth and repair of all body tissues. (strawberries, cantaloupe, tangerines, watermelons, tomatoes)
Folate: helps the body form red blood cells that help prevent anemia. The lack of folic acid may cause miscarriages or neural tube birth defects. (oranges)Websites to visit:www.dole.com – Click on Healthy Foods and Fun with Nutrition.
www.apples.org – Click on All About WA Apples for apple information and recipes.
www.broccoli.com – Click on Broccoli Institute, then Health and Nutrition, then Mann Nutrition Report and Health Articles. Also click on Mom's Kitchen for tips and recipes
All foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts, and seeds are considered part of the Protein Foods Group. Beans and peas are also part of the Vegetable Group, but cannot be counted for both groups.
Making wise and healthy Protein choices:
Key Nutrients in Protein Group:
Protein--function as building blocks for bones, muscles, cartilage, skin, and blood. They are also building blocks for enzymes, hormones, and vitamins
B vitamins--help the body release energy, play a vital role in the function of the nervous system, aid in the formation of red blood cells, and help build tissues.Iron--is used to carry oxygen in the blood
Magnesium--is used in building bones and in releasing energy from muscles.
Zinc--is necessary for biochemical reactions and helps the immune system function properly.
EPA and DHA--Eating 8 ounces per week of seafood may help reduce the risk for heart disease.
EPA--is an omega-3 fatty acid. Omega-3 fatty acids are part of a healthy diet that helps lower risks for heart disease. Increasing your intake of EPA has beneficial effects on coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, and inflammatory disorders.
DHA-- is also an omega-3 fatty acid. DHA is essential for the proper functioning of our brains as adults, and for the development of our nervous system.
Daily Recommendations For Protein:
2 ounce equivalents4 ounce equivalents
5 ounce equivalents5 ounce equivalents
5 ounce equivalents6½ ounce equivalents
19-30 years old31-50years old51+years old
5½ ounce equivalents5 ounce equivalents5 ounce equivalents
6½ ounce equivalents6 ounce equivalents5½ ounce equivalents
Ounce Equivalents in the Protein Group:
1 ounce of meat, poultry or fish --1 ounce equivalent ¼ cup cooked beans--1 ounce equivalent1 egg --1 ounce equivalent1 Tablespoon of peanut butter--1 ounce equivalent½ ounce of nuts or seeds--1 ounce equivalentTo see a chart of ounce equivalents for the protein group click here:
Tips to keep meat lean:
All fluid milk products and most foods made from milk are included in this food group. When choosing dairy products to consume, one should try to stick with fat free or low fat options. Soymilk and soy products are considered part of the dairy group. Foods made from milk that have little to no calcium are not considered part of this group. Some examples of foods that are made from milk but have little to no calcium are cream cheese, cream, and butter. Calcium—Calcium is the mineral your body uses to build strong bones and teeth. When you do not get enough Calcium when you are young, you could suffer from osteoporosis when you get older. Osteoporosis is a bone disease that leads to increased risk of fractures and broken bones. Getting enough Calcium is extremely important when a women is pregnant, to help build the baby’s bones and teeth.
Daily recommendations for the Dairy Group:
3 cups3 cups
19-30 years 31-50 years old51+ years old
3 cups3 cups3 cups
19-30 years old31-50 years old51+ old years old
Calcium--used for building bones and teeth and in maintaining bone mass, dairy products are the primary source of calcium in American diets. Diets that provide 3 cups or the equivalent of dairy products per day can improve bone mass.Vitamin D--functions in the body to maintain proper levels of calcium and phosphorous needed to build and maintain bones.Potassium--may help to maintain healthy blood pressure
Making Wise Choices and Incorporating Dairy in Daily Diet:
Most oils are high in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, and low in saturated fats. A few oils that come from plants, like coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil, should be avoided due to the high content of saturated fat. These oils are considered solid fats. Oils and solid fats both contain about 120 calories per tablespoon. Therefore, the amount of oil consumed needs to be limited to balance total calorie intake. Oils are not a food group, but they do provide essential nutrients and are therefore included in USDA recommendations for what to eat. Only small amounts of oil are recommended. Below is a chart of recommended amounts:
3 teaspoons4 teaspoons
5 teaspoons5 teaspoons
5 teaspoons6 teaspoons
6 teaspoons5 teaspoons5 teaspoons
7 teaspoons6 teaspoons6 teaspoons
Solid fats are fats that are solid at room temperature, like butter, beef fat and shortening. Some solid fats are found naturally in foods. They can also be added when foods are processed by food companies or when they are prepared.Added sugars are sugars and syrups that are added when foods or beverages are processed or prepared. Solid fats and added sugars add calories to food but add very few or no nutrients.
Age and gender
Estimated calories for those who are not physically active
Total daily calorie needs
Daily limit for empty calories
Children 2-3 yrs
Children 4-8 yrs
Girls 9-13 yrs
Boys 9-13 yrs
Girls 14-18 yrs
Boys 14-18 yrs
Females 19-30 yrs
Males 19-30 yrs
Females 31-50 yrs
Males 31-50 yrs
Females 51+ yrs
Males 51+ yrs
These should be eaten sparingly – not too much each day! Some fats, oils and sweets are added to foods before eating, such as salad dressing, mayonnaise, margarine, butter and table sugar. Because you add these yourself, it is easier to eat less by not adding them or adding small amounts. There are hidden fats and sugars in many foods, however, so it is important to read Nutrition Facts labels and know where to look for hidden fats and sugars. A small amount of fat is important for health, but most of us eat too much fat. Eating too much fat is a risk factor of heart disease and certain kinds of cancer and can lead to obesity. Being overweight can lead to high blood pressure and is a risk factor of diabetes. You should limit your overall fat intake to 20 percent to 35 percent of your calories and saturated fats to less than 10 percent. If you need about 2,000 calories a day, your total fat intake can be about 33-77 grams of fat, with 20-33 grams of this amount being saturated fat. You can learn to read labels to figure out the grams of fat in foods. To lower your fat intake, learn to recognize foods and ingredients that are high in fat and beware of foods with a lot of hidden fat.
Foods High in Hidden Fats
Butter/margarine Shortening/lard Vegetable oils Cream/sour cream Whole milk Ice cream Cheese Bacon Mayonnaise Visible fats on meats Gravy Cream sauces
Most fast-food meals Potato chips Regular popcorn Fried foods Pastries, doughnuts Brownies, most cookies Peanut butter Peanuts, pecans, other nuts Chocolate candy Avocados and olives Hot dogs, sausage, lunch meat Frozen pot pies
Easy Ways to Lower Fat
The average American eats more than 40 pounds of sugar and sweets a year, not counting soft drinks. Sugar consumption per person has increased almost 1 pound per year each year since 1985.
Physical Activity Recomendations
May reduce risk for heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol. Physical activity and adequate nutrition work together to promote a healthy lifestyle.
Adults ages 18-64 should get at least 2½ hours of activity weekly of moderate aerobic activity or 1½ hours of vigorous physical activity.
Children ages 6-17 should get about 60 minutes or more of physical activity a day.
Children ages 2-5 should be playing several times a day.
It is important to choose physical activities that you enjoy doing and are capable of doing on a regular basis.
Ways to incorporate physical activity at home or at work:
No one food group is more important than another food group.
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