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 Home>Food & Health>Education Resources>EatSmart>Lessons>

USDA Food Guide and MyPlate (Lesson 2)

 


MyPlate

INTRODUCTION

The USDA Choose My Plate is used to promote balance and moderation in the daily diet. It also promotes variety, which means eating foods from all food groups. Choose My Plate is based on the Dietary Guidelines, 2010 for Americans and is also designed to provide the recommended dietary allowances for calories, fiber and nutrients. There are five food groups and three subgroups:

  1. Grains Group
  2. Vegetables Group
  3. Fruits Group
  4. Dairy Group
  5. Protein Group

Subgroups:

  1. Oils
  2. Empty Calories
  3. Physical Activity

Variety and balance are important for a good food plan. No single food contains all the nutrients we need.

The USDA Food Guide is a tool designed to promote the concepts of variety, moderation and balance in the diet. Variety means eating foods from all food groups; moderation means limiting the amount of high-sugar or high-fat foods; and balance means eating the number of servings recommended according to your individual calorie needs.

The USDA Food Guide is based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and is also designed to provide the recommended dietary allowances for calories, fiber and nutrients. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans also identifies the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan as an alternate eating guide for healthy Americans.


After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Name the major food groups in the USDA Food Guide.
  • List the range of servings recommended for each food group.
  • Understand serving sizes/equivalents.
  • Give suggestions for food selection and preparation methods to help moderate intake.
  • Understand that exercise is an important part of a healthy lifestyle.

CONSUMER MESSAGES

  • Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk.
  • Make at least half your grains whole grains.
  • Make half your plate fruits and vegetables.
  • Enjoy your food, but eat less.
  • Avoid oversized portions.
  • Drink water instead of sugary drinks.



grains picture

GRAINS GROUP

At least half of all the grains eaten should be whole grains.

Grains are divided into 2 subgroups:

1. whole grains – Whole grains contain the entire grain kernel – the bran, germ and endosperm.

Examples: whole wheat flour, oatmeal, bulgur, brown rice

2. refined grains – Refined grains have been milled, a process that removes the bran and germ.

Examples: white bread, white rice, white flour

Most refined grains are enriched, meaning the B vitamins and iron are added back after the process. Fiber is not added back.

Grains needed daily:
Depends on age, gender and level of physical activity

 

 

Daily
Recommendation*

Daily Minimum Amount
of Whole Grains

Children

2-3 years old
4-8 years old

3 ounce equivalents
5 ounce equivalents

1 ½ ounce equivalents
2½ ounce equivalents

Girls

9-13 years old
14-18 years old

5 ounce equivalents
6 ounce equivalents

3 ounce equivalents
3 ounce equivalents

Boys

9-13 years old
14-18 years old

6 ounce equivalents
8 ounce equivalents

3 ounce equivalents
4 ounce equivalents

Women

19-30 years old
31-50 years old

51+ years old

6 ounce equivalents
6 ounce equivalents

5 ounce equivalents

3 ounce equivalents
3 ounce equivalents

3 ounce equivalents

Ounce Equivalents For Grains:

1 slice of bread – 1 oz equivalent
1 cup ready to eat cereal – 1 oz equivalent
½ cup cooked rice, pasta or cooked cereal – 1 oz equivalent
½ Hamburger or hot dog bun – 1 oz equivalent
Waffle of pancake (4 inch diameter – 1 oz equivalent

To see a chart of grain ounce equivalents, click here:

Ways to add whole grains in daily diet:

  • Substitute a whole-grain product for a refined product – such as eating whole-wheat bread instead of white bread or brown rice instead of white rice.
  • Try brown rice or whole-wheat pasta.
  • Substitute whole-wheat flour for up to half of the flour in pancake, waffle, muffin or other flour-based recipes.
  • Try rolled oats or a crushed, unsweetened whole-grain cereal as breading for baked chicken, fish, veal cutlets or eggplant parmesan.
  • Try an unsweetened, whole-grain, ready-to-eat cereal as croutons in salad or in place of crackers with soup.
  • Freeze leftover cooked brown rice, bulgur or barley. Add a small amount of liquid or water and heat and serve it later as a quick side dish.

Key Nutrients in Grains:

  • Dietary fiber – It is important for proper bowel function. May help reduce blood cholesterol levels and risk for coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
  • B vitamins – (Thiamin, Riboflavin and Niacin) Help body release energy from protein fat, and carbohydrates.
  • Iron – carries oxygen to the blood.
  • Magnesium and Selenium – Magnesium is used in building bones and releasing energy from muscles. Selenium protects cells from oxidation.
  • Folate – (Folic acid) Helps body form red blood cells, which help prevent anemia. The lack of folic acid may cause miscarriages or neural tube birth defects. (dark green, leafy vegetables)

What to Look for on the Food Label:

Look for foods that have one of the following as the first ingredient of the ingredient list:

  • Brown Rice
  • Buckwheat
  • Bulgur
  • Millet
  • Oatmeal
  • Quinoa
  • Rolled oats
  • Whole-grain barley
  • Whole-grain corn
  • Whole-grain sorghum
  • Whole oats
  • Whole rye
  • Wild rice

Websites to Visit:

www.usarice.com This is a good site for rice recipes, cooking tips and nutrition information.
www.smallgrains.org Click on "Wheat Foods" and then the "6 Classes of Wheat." Also click on "Wheat Facts" and "About Wheat Nutrition" and read the topics included.
www.kelloggs.com Click on "Course 1" and go through the course.
www.breadworld.com This is a good site for recipes and nutrition information.
www.quakeroats.com This is a good site for recipes and nutrition activities for children.




Vegetable Picture

VEGETABLE GROUP

Vegetables are organized into 5 subgroups, based on their nutrient content. Here are a few examples of vegetables in each group:

  1. Dark Green Vegetables – broccoli, spinach, collard greens
  2. Red and Orange Vegetables – tomatoes, squash, sweet potatoes, red peppers
  3. Beans and Peas – black beans, navy beans, split peas
  4. Starchy Vegetables – corn, lima beans, green bananas, green peas, potatoes
  5. Other vegetables – avocado, artichokes, beets, cabbage, etc.


DAILY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR VEGETABLES:

Daily Recomendations

Children

2-3 years old
4-8 years old

1 cup
1½ cups

Girls

9-13 years old
14-18 years old

2 cups
2½ cups

Boys

9-13 years old
14-18 years old

2½ cups
3 cups

Women

19-30 years old
31-50 years old
51+ years old

2½ cups
2½ cups
2 cups

Men

19-30 years old
31-50 years old
51+ years old

3 cups
3 cups
2½ cups

Food Safety Tip:

Always remember to wash your fruits and vegetables to remove dirt and pesticides, and to store fruits and vegetables away from any raw meat or poultry while shopping or storing. It is best to put raw meat on the lowest shelf in the refrigerator or shopping basket.

Cup Equivalents for Vegetable Group:

1 cup raw or cooked vegetables = 1 cup of vegetables
1 cup vegetable juice = 1 cup of vegetables
2 cups raw leafy greens =1 cup of vegetables
To see chart of cup equivalents for vegetable group click here

Key Nutrients in Vegetables:

Potassium – May help to maintain healthy blood pressure. Potassium is involved in fluid balance in the body.
Dietary fiber – It is important for proper bowel function. May help reduce blood cholesterol levels and risk for coronary heart disease and type-2 diabetes.
Folate (folic acid) – Helps the body make red blood cells, which help prevent anemia. The lack of folic acid may cause miscarriages or neural tube birth defects. (dark green leafy vegetables)
Vitamin AKeeps eyes and skin healthy and helps to protect against infections. (carrots, greens, pumpkin, sweet potatoes)
Vitamin C – Helps heal cuts and wounds and keeps teeth and gums healthy. Vitamin C aids in iron absorption. (green peppers, broccoli, potatoes, cabbage)


Tips to Increase Vegetable Intake:

  • Stock up on frozen vegetables; quick and easy.
  • Buy vegetables that are in season; cheaper.
  • Buy vegetables that are easy to prepare; saves time.
  • Serve a dark green salad at dinner every night; light on the dressing.
  • Shred veggies such as squash or carrots into meals such as meatloaf, lasagna, soup, etc.
  • Puree vegetables to thicken stews or soups
  • Order a veggie pizza instead of a meat lovers pizza.



fruits

FRUIT GROUP

Any fruit or 100% fruit juice counts as part of the Fruit Group. Fruits may be fresh, canned, frozen or dried, and may be whole, cut-up or pureed.

Daily Recomendation For Fruit:

Daily Recomended

Children

2-3 years old
4-8 years old

1 cup
1 to 1½ cups

Girls

9-13 years old
14-18 years old

1½ cups
1½ cups

Boys

9-13 years old
14-18 years old

1½ cups
2 cups

Women

19-30 years old
31-50 years old
51+ years old

2 cups
1½ cups
1½ cups

Men

19-30 years old
31-50 years old
51+ years old

2 cups
2 cups
2 cups

Cup Equivalents in Fruit Group

1 cup 100% fruit juice – 1cup equivalent
1 cup of fruit – 1 cup equivalent
½ cup dried fruit – 1 cup equivalent

Fruits and vegetables are an important source of fiber. There are two types of fiber.

    1. Insoluble fiber – aids in regular bowel movements and is considered stomach healthy fiber because it adds bulk to the diet, which helps prevent constipation. This speeds up the passage of food through the intestines and stomach. Insoluble fibers are mainly found in whole grains and vegetables.

Sources of insoluble fiber: zucchini, celery, broccoli, cabbage, onions, tomatoes, carrots, cucumbers, green beans, dark leafy vegetables, raisins, grapes, fruit and root vegetable skins.

    1. Soluble fiber – Has been shown to help lower blood cholesterol. Found in both fruits and vegetables. Soluble fiber slows down the digestion of food in your stomach, which helps you feel full. Soluble fibers can also help lower LDL (“bad”) blood cholesterol by interfering with the absorption of dietary cholesterol.

Sources of soluble fiber: apples, oranges, pears, strawberries, beans, dried peas, blueberries, cucumbers, celery, and carrots.

Fitting in Fuits:

  • Drink 100% fruit juice instead of soda.
  • Carry a banana or apple in your book bag or bag for a snack.
  • Dip apples or bananas in peanut butter.
  • Try dried fruit like raisins for a snack.

Key Nutrients in Fruit:

Potassium
: May help to maintain healthy blood pressure. (bananas, prunes and prune juice, dried peaches and apricots, cantaloupe, honeydew melon and orange juice)

Dietary Fiber: from fruits, as part of an overall healthy diet, helps reduce blood cholesterol levels and may lower risk of heart disease. Fiber is important for proper bowel function. It helps reduce constipation.

Vitamin C: important for growth and repair of all body tissues. (strawberries, cantaloupe, tangerines, watermelons, tomatoes)

Folate: helps the body form red blood cells that help prevent anemia. The lack of folic acid may cause miscarriages or neural tube birth defects. (oranges)

Websites to visit:
www.dole.com – Click on Healthy Foods and Fun with Nutrition.

www.apples.org – Click on All About WA Apples for apple information and recipes.

www.broccoli.com – Click on Broccoli Institute, then Health and Nutrition, then Mann Nutrition Report and Health Articles. Also click on Mom's Kitchen for tips and recipes




protein

PROTEIN GROUP

All foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts, and seeds are considered part of the Protein Foods Group. Beans and peas are also part of the Vegetable Group, but cannot be counted for both groups.

Making wise and healthy Protein choices:

  • Choose lean or low-fat meat and poultry.
  • Select seafood that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as salmon, trout, sardines, anchovies, herring
  • Check the Nutrition Facts label to help limit sodium intake.
  • Choose unsalted nuts and seeds to keep sodium intake low.

Key Nutrients in Protein Group:

Protein--function as building blocks for bones, muscles, cartilage, skin, and blood. They are also building blocks for enzymes, hormones, and vitamins

B vitamins--help the body release energy, play a vital role in the function of the nervous system, aid in the formation of red blood cells, and help build tissues.

Iron
--is used to carry oxygen in the blood

Magnesium--is used in building bones and in releasing energy from muscles.

Zinc--is necessary for biochemical reactions and helps the immune system function properly.

EPA and DHA--Eating 8 ounces per week of seafood may help reduce the risk for heart disease.

EPA--is an omega-3 fatty acid. Omega-3 fatty acids are part of a healthy diet that helps lower risks for heart disease. Increasing your intake of EPA has beneficial effects on coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, and inflammatory disorders.

DHA-- is also an omega-3 fatty acid. DHA is essential for the proper functioning of our brains as adults, and for the development of our nervous system.


Daily Recommendations For Protein:

Daily Recomendation

Children

2-3 years old
4-8 years old

2 ounce equivalents
4 ounce equivalents

Girls

9-13 years old
14-18 years old

5 ounce equivalents
5 ounce equivalents

Boys

9-13 years old
14-18 years old

5 ounce equivalents
6½ ounce equivalents

Women

19-30 years old
31-50years old
51+years old

5½ ounce equivalents
5 ounce equivalents
5 ounce equivalents

Men

19-30 years old
31-50years old
51+years old

6½ ounce equivalents
6 ounce equivalents
5½ ounce equivalents

Ounce Equivalents in the Protein Group:

1 ounce of meat, poultry or fish --1 ounce equivalent
¼ cup cooked beans--1 ounce equivalent
1 egg --1 ounce equivalent
1 Tablespoon of peanut butter--1 ounce equivalent
½ ounce of nuts or seeds--1 ounce equivalent

To see a chart of ounce equivalents for the protein group click here:

http://http://www.choosemyplate.gov/foodgroups/proteinfoods_counts.html

  • Adding peanuts to your daily diet may reduce the risk of heart disease, when eaten along with a diet that is nutritionally dense and within calorie needs. Always eat nuts in small portions, because they are high in calories. One should always choose unsalted nuts and seeds to help reduce daily sodium intake.
  • Eating 8 ounces of seafood a week contributes to the prevention of heart disease. This is because seafood contains the omega 3 fatty acids, DHA and EPA, as mentioned earlier in this section.

Tips to keep meat lean:

    • Trim away all of the fat from meats and poultry before cooking.
    • Broil, grill, roast, or boil meat, poultry, or fish instead of frying.
    • Drain off any fat that appears during cooking,
    • Don’t add breading to meat, poultry, or fish when frying. The breading adds calories.
    • Prepare beans and peas without added fats.
    • Try to choose foods that do not have high fat sauces or gravies. If you do have a gravy or sauce, skim the fat off the top before serving.



 Dairy Group
What is included in the Dairy Group?

All fluid milk products and most foods made from milk are included in this food group. When choosing dairy products to consume, one should try to stick with fat free or low fat options. Soymilk and soy products are considered part of the dairy group. Foods made from milk that have little to no calcium are not considered part of this group. Some examples of foods that are made from milk but have little to no calcium are cream cheese, cream, and butter.

Calcium—Calcium is the mineral your body uses to build strong bones and teeth. When you do not get enough Calcium when you are young, you could suffer from osteoporosis when you get older. Osteoporosis is a bone disease that leads to increased risk of fractures and broken bones. Getting enough Calcium is extremely important when a women is pregnant, to help build the baby’s bones and teeth.

  • Intake of food products from the dairy group are also associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and can be associated with lower blood pressure in adults.
  • Milk and milk products are the best sources for calcium. Here is a chart of recommended daily intake of milk and milk products daily depending on gender and age.


Daily recommendations for the Dairy Group:

Daily Recomendation

Children

2-3 years old
4-8 years old

2 cups
2½ cups

Girls

9-13 years old
14-18 years old

3 cups
3 cups

Boys

9-13 years old
14-18 years old

3 cups
3 cups

Women

19-30 years
31-50 years old
51+ years old

3 cups
3 cups
3 cups

Men

19-30 years old
31-50 years old
51+ old years old

3 cups
3 cups
3 cups


Cup Equivalents for Milk and Milk Products:

1 cup of milk, yogurt, or soymilk—1 cup equivalent
1.5 ounces of natural cheese—1 cup equivalent
2 ounces of processed cheese—1 cup equivalent

To see a chart of milk and milk product cup equivalents click here:

http://www.choosemyplate.gov/foodgroups/dairy_counts.html

Key Nutrients in Milk and Milk Products:

Calcium--used for building bones and teeth and in maintaining bone mass, dairy products are the primary source of calcium in American diets. Diets that provide 3 cups or the equivalent of dairy products per day can improve bone mass.
Vitamin D--functions in the body to maintain proper levels of calcium and phosphorous needed to build and maintain bones.
Potassium--may help to maintain healthy blood pressure

Making Wise Choices and Incorporating Dairy in Daily Diet:

  • If you drink whole milk, try to gradually switch to fat-free milk. Try reduced fat (2%), then low-fat (1%), and finally fat-free (skim). This will decrease saturated fat intake and calories.
  • If you drink coffee like drinks such as; cappuccinos or lattes — order them with fat-free milk.
  • To help add milk to the diet try adding fat-free or low-fat milk instead of water to oatmeal and hot cereals.
  • When making creamy soups use fat-free or low-fat milk.
  • If you are lactose intolerant choose lactose free items such as cheese, yogurt, lactose-free milk, or soymilk.



OILS

Some common healthy oils are:

  • canola oil
  • corn oil
  • cottonseed oil
  • olive oil
  • safflower oil
  • soybean oil
  • sunflower oil

Most oils are high in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, and low in saturated fats. A few oils that come from plants, like coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil, should be avoided due to the high content of saturated fat. These oils are considered solid fats. Oils and solid fats both contain about 120 calories per tablespoon. Therefore, the amount of oil consumed needs to be limited to balance total calorie intake. Oils are not a food group, but they do provide essential nutrients and are therefore included in USDA recommendations for what to eat. Only small amounts of oil are recommended.

Below is a chart of recommended amounts:

Daily Allowance

Children

2-3 years old
4-8 years old

3 teaspoons
4 teaspoons

Girls

9-13 years old
14-18 years old

5 teaspoons
5 teaspoons

Boys

9-13 years old
14-18 years old

5 teaspoons
6 teaspoons

Women

19-30 years old
31-50 years old
51+ years old

6 teaspoons
5 teaspoons
5 teaspoons

Men

19-30 years old
31-50 years old
51+ years old

7 teaspoons
6 teaspoons
6 teaspoons


Empty Calories

Key Consumer Messages:

  • Enjoy your food, but eat less.
  • Avoid oversized portions.
  • Drink water instead of sugary drinks.

Solid fats are fats that are solid at room temperature, like butter, beef fat and shortening. Some solid fats are found naturally in foods. They can also be added when foods are processed by food companies or when they are prepared.
Added sugars are sugars and syrups that are added when foods or beverages are processed or prepared.
Solid fats and added sugars add calories to food but add very few or no nutrients.

Major Contributers to Empty Calories

  • Cakes, cookies, pastries and donuts may contain solid fat and added sugars.
  • Sodas, energy drinks, sports drinks and fruit drinks may contain added sugars.
  • Cheese may contain solid fat.
  • Pizza may contain solid fat.
  • Ice cream may contain both solid fat and added sugars.
  • Sausages, hot dogs, bacon and ribs may contain solid fat.

Age and gender

Estimated calories for those who are not physically active

Total daily calorie needs

Daily limit for empty calories

Children 2-3 yrs

1000 cals

135

Children 4-8 yrs

1200-1400 cals

120

Girls 9-13 yrs

1600 cals

120

Boys 9-13 yrs

1800 cals

160

Girls 14-18 yrs

1800 cals

160

Boys 14-18 yrs

2200 cals

265

Females 19-30 yrs

2000 cals

260

Males 19-30 yrs

2400 cals

330

Females 31-50 yrs

1800 cals

160

Males 31-50 yrs

2200 cals

265

Females 51+ yrs

1600 cals

120

Males 51+ yrs

2000 cals

260

Avoid These Solid Fats:

  • butter
  • milk fat
  • beef fat (tallow, suet)
  • chicken fat
  • cream
  • pork fat (lard)
  • stick margarine
  • shortening
  • hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated oils
  • coconut oil
  • palm and palm kernel oils

Limit These Added Sugars:

  • anhydrous dextrose
  • brown sugar
  • confectioner's powdered sugar
  • corn syrup
  • corn syrup solids
  • dextrose
  • fructose
  • high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)
  • honey
  • invert sugar
  • lactose
  • malt syrup
  • maltose
  • maple syrup
  • molasses
  • nectars (e.g., peach nectar, pear nectar)
  • pancake syrup
  • raw sugar
  • sucrose
  • sugar
  • white granulated sugar

These should be eaten sparingly – not too much each day! Some fats, oils and sweets are added to foods before eating, such as salad dressing, mayonnaise, margarine, butter and table sugar. Because you add these yourself, it is easier to eat less by not adding them or adding small amounts. There are hidden fats and sugars in many foods, however, so it is important to read Nutrition Facts labels and know where to look for hidden fats and sugars.
A small amount of fat is important for health, but most of us eat too much fat. Eating too much fat is a risk factor of heart disease and certain kinds of cancer and can lead to obesity. Being overweight can lead to high blood pressure and is a risk factor of diabetes. You should limit your overall fat intake to 20 percent to 35 percent of your calories and saturated fats to less than 10 percent. If you need about 2,000 calories a day, your total fat intake can be about 33-77 grams of fat, with 20-33 grams of this amount being saturated fat. You can learn to read labels to figure out the grams of fat in foods. To lower your fat intake, learn to recognize foods and ingredients that are high in fat and beware of foods with a lot of hidden fat.

High-Fat Foods

Foods High in Hidden Fats

Butter/margarine
Shortening/lard
Vegetable oils
Cream/sour cream
Whole milk
Ice cream
Cheese
Bacon
Mayonnaise
Visible fats on meats
Gravy
Cream sauces

Most fast-food meals
Potato chips
Regular popcorn
Fried foods
Pastries, doughnuts
Brownies, most cookies
Peanut butter
Peanuts, pecans, other nuts
Chocolate candy
Avocados and olives
Hot dogs, sausage, lunch meat
Frozen pot pies


Easy Ways to Lower Fat

  • Bake or broil instead of fry.
  • Choose low-fat or skim milk and other low-fat or non-fat dairy products.
  • Choose lean meats, poultry and fish.
  • Trim off all visible fat and remove skin from poultry before eating.
  • Chill soups, broths and gravies and remove hardened fat.
  • Get most of your calories from whole-grain and enriched breads and cereals, rice, pasta, dried beans and peas, fruits and vegetables.
  • Choose margarines that have liquid oil listed as the first ingredient.
  • Limit your intake of hidden fats.
  • Change your recipes; decrease fat by at least one-half.
  • Substitute applesauce for shortening in baking.

The average American eats more than 40 pounds of sugar and sweets a year, not counting soft drinks. Sugar consumption per person has increased almost 1 pound per year each year since 1985.




Physical Activity Recomendations

Being physically active has many health benefits including, but not limited to:

  • Increase longevity of life
  • Feel better and increase self confidence
  • Decrease depression
  • Better sleeping patterns
  • Become stronger with added muscle strength
  • Help manage and control your weight

May reduce risk for heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol. Physical activity and adequate nutrition work together to promote a healthy lifestyle.

Adults ages 18-64 should get at least 2½ hours of activity weekly of moderate aerobic activity or 1½ hours of vigorous physical activity.

Children ages 6-17 should get about 60 minutes or more of physical activity a day.

Children ages 2-5 should be playing several times a day.

It is important to choose physical activities that you enjoy doing and are capable of doing on a regular basis.

Ways to incorporate physical activity at home or at work:

  • Walk the dog
  • Join a walking group or walk with friends
  • Get the entire family involved
  • Clean the house or wash the car
  • Plant a garden
  • Use a push mower to mow the lawn
  • Get off the bus one stop early and walk home
  • During a coffee break take a 10-minute brisk walk instead



There are five food groups in the USDA Food Guide:

  • Grains
  • Vegetables
  • Fruits
  • Milk
  • Proteins 

No one food group is more important than another food group.


Last Updated: 7/26/2012 11:54:20 AM
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