What is a food animal?
Cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry and rabbits are all considered food animals by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Even if the owner of an animal considers a food animal as a pet, legally it is a food animal and potential food product. Food safety has to be assured with any drug use in food animals, so pharmaceutical use laws for food animals are very strict. Before giving any pharmaceutical product to a food animal, it is best to consult a veterinarian. Misuse of animal pharmaceutical products may break state and/or federal laws and may threaten their future availability.
Types of drugs:
Types of drug use:
For instance, ELDU occurs when administration is:
Conditions for ELDU:
ELDU must take place within the confines of a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship.
ELDU is not an option where the drug use is to enhance production. The health or life of the animal must be threatened for ELDU.
Livestock Producer Do’s and Don’ts of Prudent Drug Use:
Using antimicrobials or other drugs when not indicated.
Using the wrong drug.
Most Louisiana show-pig breeders are beginning to breed their sows to produce pigs for next year’s shows. Show-pig breeders spend a lot of money on show-pig semen. This is one of highest costs in any quality show-pig operation. In order to justify that much investment in show-pig semen, producers must have a quality herd health program to help increase conception and farrowing rates. Producers should have a veterinary/client relationship. If they do not, they need to develop one. There is nothing better than having a qualified veterinarian available when a producer has problems or needs advice. Below is a very high-quality herd health program that many quality show-pig breeders use in their operations. The same herd health program will not work for everyone, but this one is an excellent place to start. This health program has suggestions for sows, gilts and baby pigs. If you are going to spend an exorbitant amount of money on semen, you might as well spend a little on a quality herd health program.
Vaccine or Medication
Purpose or Time
Sows and Gilts
Quarterly/every 3 months
Sows - PreBreed
At least 2 wks before breeding
2 Vac/2 weeks apart/2 weeks before breeding
Gilts – PreBreed
PreBreed Worm and Mange control
Approx. 5 and 2 weeks pre-farrow
Mange/Worms 5-10 days before farrowing
IPD – Iron/Pen/Draxxin
Under 24 hours/Again at 7-10 days
Pigs at weaning
At 4 and 6 weeks of age
Joint Vaccine – Myco Hyorhinis/Myco hyosynoviae/Strep/Parasuis
At 6 and 8 weeks of age
Deworming is an essential component of successfully managing your horse’s health and should be tailored for each animal’s specific needs. More than 150 different parasites can potentially infect your horse; however, in North America we are mainly concerned about roundworms (called ascarids), large and small strongyles and tapeworms. Threadworms are not typically included in this list because they usually occur temporarily in foals. Other common parasites of horses include pinworms and bots. The products you choose to deworm your horse and the frequency in which you use them should be partly dependent upon many factors: the age and class of horse you have, geographic region, if the horse is pastured or stalled (and if it is on pasture, how many horses share the same space), climate and the individual needs of your horse.
Special consideration should be given to horses living in the South. Here in Louisiana, horses are at risk for increased parasite loads in the fall and in early spring when conditions are wet and warm. However, Louisiana horses are less susceptible to parasite transmission during the summer months due to extremely hot conditions.Currently, veterinarians are recommending an updated deworming schedule, which relies on determining the number of parasites present in a fecal sample, commonly referred to as “parasite load.” Once the parasite load of your horse is classified as low, moderate or high, your veterinarian will be able to help you determine the best treatment schedule. It is now thought that traditional methods of bimonthly rotational deworming are no longer effective due to increasing anthelmentic resistance. It also is recommended that other preventative measures are put into place to reduce your horse’s exposure to environmental contamination.
Prevention of environmental contamination is essential to reduce the parasitic load. This method includes proper care of paddocks, pastures and fields and is often overlooked. To ensure the maximum effectiveness of any deworming program, the following are recommended: regular removal and disposal of manure at least twice a week, harrowing pastures to break up manure piles and expose the eggs and larvae to the elements, ussing rotational grazing by moving horses between pastures to reduce parasite ingestion, reducing the number of horses per acre, which translates to decreased fecal contamination, and elevating feed off the ground to prevent further parasite ingestion.
While no deworming program will be suitable for every horse, the following recommendations should be effective for the average adult horse living in Louisiana with a low to moderate parasite load.
If you have any questions regarding specific recommendations for your horse, please contact your local veterinarian. Email the author
On March 16, the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) announced revised and new standards to reduce the incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in chickens and turkeys. The FSIS estimates that about 25,000 foodborne illnesses will be prevented under the new Campylobactor and revised Salmonella standards.
These standards were developed based on nationwide studies measuring the baseline incidence of these two foodborne pathogens. The new standard for Salmonella is that no more than 7.5 percent of chicken carcasses sampled can be positive for Salmonella. The new standard for Campylobacter is that no more than 10.4 percent of raw product should have Campylobacter jejuni, C. lari, and/or C. coli on it. This is the first FSIS standard adopted for Campylobacter. The standards go into effect in July 2011.
The good news is that the poultry industry continuously makes improvements in its food safety standards and already meets these new standards. (USDA-FSIS, March 16, 2011) Email the author
The Class I price of milk for March is $22.03/cwt, which is an increase of $2.34/cwt compared with the previous month and an increase of $3.89/cwt compared with the same time last year. Even though the prices for the other classes of milk may be lower in March compared to February due to the recent declines in the spot cheese prices and the futures market, the uniform blend price could still be close to $20/cwt for March milk depending on utilization. The Class I price for April was announced at $23.23/cwt, which is $1.03/cwt higher than March and the highest Class I price since July 2008.
Product Prices, Inventory and Demand
On March 25, cheese trading activity on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) was characterized solely by bids, with blocks rising a quarter cent – the first gain after losing 39¢ in the previous two weeks. The shift in tone sent Class III futures significantly higher. MAY-JUL gained 40¢, and AUG-OCT closed at new highs.
Whey prices continued to climb in Dairy Market News’ (DMN) weekly survey. Dry whey from the Midwest is mostly 40-47¢ this week, DMN says, with “little price resistance” so far as prices have increased nearly 8¢ (+22%) since the first of the year. Whey futures for APR-DEC average 46.6¢.
Global milk powder prices have softened in the last two weeks; USDA’s Dairy Market News pegs Oceania Skimmed Milk Powder (SMP) at $1.63-$1.91/lb., down about a nickel from the three-year high recorded earlier in the month. Spot supplies from Oceania are limited, DMN adds, but the European Union (EU) and U.S. production is increasing seasonally. More importantly, orders have slowed as buyers wait for prices to settle. U.S. prices continue to track global trends, with U.S. Non-Fat Dried Milk (NDM) discounted about 20¢ from Oceania SMP.
Retail dairy prices were mostly higher in February, according to Consumer Price Index (CPI) data. The Butter CPI was 209.9, up 3.6% from January, and the highest level ever. Still, orders for domestic sales remain good with Easter four weeks out. Export interest is strong as well. Milk CPI was 137.0, up 0.5% from January, and the highest since January 2009. The Cheese CPI was 205.7, down 0.2% from January. The cheese index has stayed between 202 and 209 for the last 14 months.
Butter stocks remain at a six-year low. On Feb. 28, inventories were 138.7 million lbs., down by nearly a third from last year’s level. This represents about 31 days of use, nearly two weeks less than usual for this time of year.
Cheese stocks uncharacteristically decreased in February, as historically high prices discouraged manufacturers and marketers from building inventory during what is normally a time to put cheese away. Total cheese inventories on Feb. 28 were 1.035 billion lbs., down 2% from the end of January, according to USDA’s “Cold Storage” report released on March 23, 2011. American cheese stocks were 622.2 million lbs., also down 2% (-15.7 million lbs.). From 2000-2010, American cheese inventories increased an average of 3% (+16.7 million lbs.) during February, the most for any month.
Fluid milk sales in the November-January period were up fractionally from the year before, the first time the rolling three-month volume beat the prior year since December 2009. Sales were off 1.4% in calendar year 2010, a shortfall of 776 million lbs of milk that was used to manufacture other dairy products.
Milk Production and Cow Numbers
Milk supplies and component levels are increasing seasonally, approaching peak levels in California and other Western states. Milk production in Florida is up significantly this year (+13.0%), leading to record volumes of spot milk shipments out of the state. In the last two months, 200 tankers per week have been diverted to surrounding regions, up 67% from last year.
Cow numbers for all 50-states were steady in February after increasing 35,000 head in December and January, according to USDA’s latest “Milk Production” report. Over the last year, the largest expansion has come from Idaho (+18,000 head), Arizona (+15,000) and Texas (+15,000).
On March 24 the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Cow Slaughter Under Federal Inspection by Region and U.S. Total report stated 58,900 dairy cows were slaughtered during the week ending March 12. This is an increase of 100 head (0.2%) compared to the same week in 2010. This is the smallest year-over-year increase for a single week during 2011. Year-to-date cow slaughter was reported at 676,000 head, up 63,900 head (10.4%) when compared to the same period in 2010.
According to the Milk Production report released by USDA on March 18, milk production in February throughout the United States increased 297 million pounds (2%) from last year to 15.1 billion pounds. This is the first time February milk production has ever been above 15 billion pounds. On a daily basis, milk output increased 11 million pounds per day. Milk price increases have encouraged dairy farmers to add to the herd size compared to last year and boosted milk per cow production to historical highs for the month of February. Production per cow totaled 1,644 pounds (up 21 pounds compared to last February), this is the largest reported February milk per cow production number. For the top 23 milk-producing states, Florida had the largest percentage increase in milk production at 12.2%, compared to February 2010. Arizona and Kansas also had significant increases at 7.3 and 6.4%, respectively.
(Sources: Daily Dairy Report and DFA Dairy Today) Email the author
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