M.S. in Animal Science (Meats), 1976, Purdue University
Ph.D. in Meat Science, 1980, Iowa State University
Goal: To evaluate different forage systems on beef properties, different production systems and locations on goat carcass and meat characteristics, and inclusion of functional ingredients in diets on chicken meat properties
Approach: Cooperate with scientists at Iberia Research Station on forage beef production, obtain goats of different ages from different commercial producers, and feed chickens turmeric or coenzyme Q10 in the diet.
Results: There are minimal beef tenderness differences with forage system type.
Electrical conductivity and resistance measurements are minimally related to physical properties of beef steaks.
Kid meat goats from different breed compositions and different locations have different body measurements and carcass traits, but lean carcass yields and meat palatability are less variable.
Goal: To determine the functional characteristics of forage beef samples, restructured roasts from beef and goat meat, and after freezing and thawing of beef.
Approach: Measure protein functionality and lipid oxidation in whole muscles and patties, in restructured beef containing different binder ingredients, and in beef roasts frozen at different freezing rates.
Results: The influences of heating on the types and amounts of heme and iron forms in beef and chicken, functional properties of washed recovered mince from chicken hindquarters and from mechanically separated beef, incorporation of blood proteins into ground beef, use of lactates in restructured precooked pork roasts, and effects of different starches for batter of nuggets have been determined.
Goal: To increase shelf-life of color, oxidative stability, and palatability and decrease microbial growth during storage of muscle foods
Approach: Use modified atmosphere packaging and environmental control through gas types (CO, CO2, O2, N2, O3), gas concentrations, gas to meat ratios, and gas exchange technologies.
Results: Pork chops enhanced with marinade containing dissolved gas had slightly longer shelf life than enhanced chops without dissolved gases.
Pork chops dipped in calcium ascorbate or sodium ascorbate had decreased drip or cook losses and higher a* and b* color values in high oxygen MAP during simulated retail display than chops in other treatments.
Gas exchange technology provides for extended distribution in nitrogen:carbon dioxide atmospheres with exchange for oxygen:carbon dioxided before retail display. Retail display time before discoloration is extended beyond that for air atmosphere blooming of deoxymyoglobin to oxymyoglobin
Ozonation at the time of packaging or time of gas exchange inhibits pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms if the proper package environmental conditions are present.
Current USDA AFRI USDA National Institute for Food and Agriculture AFRI Prosperity for Small and Medium-sized Farms and Rural Communities Project: Production, Processing,and Packaging to Improve Properties of Forage-Beef, Goat Meat, and Chicken Containing Functional Ingredients
Approach: Use modified atmosphere packaging and environmental control through gas types (CO, CO2, O2, N2, O3), gas concentrations, gas to meat ratios, and gas
Approach: Measure the live, carcass, and meat traits of kid and yearling meat goats and evaluate the palatability of goat meat from the types of goats representative of those marketed in the U.S.
Approach: Survey a representative national sample of consumers to determine desired traits for selected goat meat products and to estimate consumer willingness to pay for the desired traits
Goal: To assist developing nations in improving the amounts, quality, and safety of their meat and poultry supply.
Approach: Partner with meat, animal, and food scientists at universities and non-governmental organizations in the developing countries.
Results: Present seminars, workshops, and training meetings for US AID and USDA Foreign Agricultural Service projects in Armenia, Ukraine, Moldova, Nicaragua, Zambia, Namibia, South Africa, Mozambique, and Malawi and USDA projects in Indonesia and Armenia.
Ken McMillin was raised on a livestock and grain farm in Indiana and worked in the family meat processing plant and on the farm during high school and college. He has over 35 years of experience working in and with the meat and poultry industries. Ken’s specific expertise is in value-added processing of red meat, poultry and seafood; case-ready and modified atmosphere packaging; Cajun meat products; HACCP and food safety; and goat meat.
Professional Certifications and Affiliations:
Professional Certifications and Affiliations:
· McMillin, K.W. 2010. Meat Production and Quality. Chap. 13 in Goat Science and Production, S. Solaiman (Ed.), Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, pp. 255-273.
· Pinkerton, F. 2010. A Compilation of the Wit and Wisdom of ‘The Goat Man.’ Hankins Enterprises Inc., Sarah, Mississippi, 351 pp.
Pinkerton, F. and K. McMillin. Chapter 1-7. Goat Meat Cookery, pp. 43-48.
Pinkerton, F., K. McMillin, B. Herr, and T. Stanton. Chapter 2-4. Target Marketing of Slaughter Goats, pp. 74-80.
Pinkerton, F., K. McMillin, and A. Peischel. Chapter 5-6. Feedlots for Meat Goats: Opportunities, Constraints, and Economics, pp. 249-256.
McMillin, K.W. Chapter 6-4. Factors Affecting Carcass Grade and Meat Yield, pp. 293-298.
McMillin, K.W. Chapter 6-5. Value-Added Goat Meat Products, pp. 299-304
McMillin, K.W. Chapter 6-6 Principles of Kid Growth and Development, pp. 305-311.
Pinkerton, F., K.W. McMillin, and L. Nuti. Chapter 6-7. Imported Goat Meat: Consumption, Channels, Characteristics and Acceptance, pp. 312-317.
· Hoffman, L.C. and K.W. McMillin. 2009. Improving the meat quality of venison and other exotic meat. Chapter 19 in Improving the Sensory and Nutritional Quality of Fresh Meat: New Technologies, J.P. Kerry and D.A. Ledward (Ed.), Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK.
· McMillin, K.W. 2009. Advances in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for meat and poultry. Food Engineering & Ingredients 34(4):31-33.
· McMillin, K. and L. Hoffman. 2009. Improving the quality of meat from ratites. Chapter 18 in Improving the Sensory and Nutritional Quality of Fresh Meat: New Technologies, J.P. Kerry and D.A. Ledward (Ed.), Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK.
· Pinkerton, F. and K. McMillin. 2010 Goat industry update Pt. 2. Goat Rancher, May, pp. 6-8.
· Pinkerton, F. and K. McMillin. 2010. Goat industry update: Statistics & trends. Goat Rancher, March, pp. 6-8.
· Pinkerton, F. and K. McMillin. 2009. Carcass evaluation results analyzed. Goat Rancher, June, pp. 8-9.
· Pinkerton, F. and K. McMillin. 2009. Goat Industry Update Part 2. Goat Rancher, May, pp. 13-14, 16, 18-19.
· Pinkerton, F. and K. McMillin. 2009. 2009 Goat Industry Statistics, trends and commentary. Goat Rancher, March, pp. 37-38.
· Pinkerton, F., K. McMillin and A. Peischel. 2009. Feedlots for meat goats Opportunities, constraints and economics. Goat Rancher, February, pp. 14-17.
· Gadiyaram, K. M., G. Kannan, T.D. Pringle, B. Kouakou, K.W. McMillin, and Y.W. Park. 2008. Effects of postmortem carcass electrical stimulation on goat meat quality characteristics. Small Rumin. Res. 78:106-114.
· McMillin, K.W. 2008. Where is MAP going. A review and potential future for modified atmosphere packaging of meat. Meat Sci. 80:43-65.
· Guerra, M.O., K.W. McMillin, T.D. Bidner, M.E. Janes and M.A. Persica, III. 2007. Carbonated or gaseous enhancement solutions improve injected pork properties in modified atmosphere packaging. Intl. Congress of Meat Sci. and Technol. Proc. 53:523-524.
· McMillin, K. and F. Pinkerton. 2007. Industry Update 2006. Chapter Forty In The Meat Goats of Caston Creek, Sylvia Tomlinson, Redbud Publishing Company, Victoria, Texas, pp. 219-230.
· McMillin, K.W. and F. Pinkerton. 2007. Selection, Carcass Evaluation and Fabrication. In Meat Goat Production Handbook, T.A. Gipson, R.C. Merkel, K. Williams, and T. Sahlu (Ed.), Langston University, Langston, OK, pp. 155-162.
· Kannan, G., K.M. Gadiyaram, S. Galipalli, A. Carmichael, B. Kouakou, T. D. Pringle, K. W. McMillin and S. Gelaye. 2006. Meat quality in goats as influenced by dietary protein and energy levels, and postmortem aging. Small Rumin. Res. 61:45-52.
· McMillin, K.W. 2006. Personal Hygiene. Chap. 195 in Handbook of Food Science, Technology and Engineering, Vol. 4, Y.H. Hui, E. Castell-Perez, L.M. Cunha, I. Guerrero Legarreta, H.H. Liang, Y.M. Lo, D.L. Marshall, W.K. Nip, F. Shahidi, F. Sherkat, R.J. Winger, and K.L. Yam (Ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 195.1-195.13.
· McMillin, K.W. and F. Pinkerton. 2006. Development of a meat goat selection, carcass evaluation and fabrication guide. Intl. Congress of Meat Sci. and Technol. Proc. 52:679-680.
· Negatu, Z., J.I. McNitt, and K.W. McMillin. 2006. Determination of small bone fragments in mechanically separated rabbit meat. J. Muscle Foods 17:185-197.
· Huang, N.-Y., C.-P. Ho, and K.W. McMillin. 2005. Retail shelf-life of pork dipped in organic acid before modified atmosphere or vacuum packaging. J. Food Sci. 70:M382-M387.
· McMillin, K.W. and A.P. Brock. 2005. Value-added processing and consumer preference of goat meat. J. Anim. Sci. 83:E57-E68.
· McMillin, K.W. 2005. Goat, carcass, and goat meat marketing, classification, and quality. Proceedings of the 2005 Goat Conference, Reference Center in Agriculture and Agri-Food of Quebec, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada, pp. 95-102.
· McMillin, K. 2005. Goat carcass evaluation and institutional meat purchase specifications. Proceedings of the North Carolina Goat and Sheep Roundup I. North Carolina Cooperative Extension, Raleigh, North Carolina, August.
· Rahardiyan, D., A. Brock and K. McMillin. 2005. Indonesian bakso meatball composition, texture, and structure with frozen meat and product storage. Intl. Congress Meat Sci. and Technol. Proc. 51:807-810.